7. The planners didn't realise they would need (build) so many houses.

8. This shirt is quite clean; it doesn't want (wash) yet.

9. Her shoes have a hole in them; they want (mend).

10. The room was in a terrible mess: it needed (tidy up).

11. The baby's crying; I think he needs (feed).

12. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time to go to the


13. John needed (cheer up) when he heard that he'd failed his exams.

14. You should tidy the garden. - Yes, it needs (tidy). The roses want

(water), the peaches want (pick), the grass wants (cut).

2. Open the brackets using a suitable gerund

1. Alter the accident, the injured man recovered consciousness in hospital.

He remembered (cross) the road, but he didn't remember (knock down).

2. I am still thirsty in spite of (drink) four cups of tea.

3. This carpet always looks dirty, in spite of (sweep) every day.

4. He didn't return the book he had borrowed after (promise) to do so.

5. He got into the house by (climb) through a window, without (see) by


6. I think he was foolish to buy a car before (learn) how to drive it.

7. Peter is a much better chess-player than I am, and he was very surprised

when I beat him yesterday for the first time. He isn't used to (beat).

8. He went to bed at 9 p.m. in spite of (sleep) all the afternoon.

9. He complained of (give) a very small room at the back of the hotel.

10. The little girl isn't afraid of dogs in spite of (bite) twice.

11. The little girl didn't go near the dog; she was afraid of (bite).

12. The baby went to sleep a few minutes after (feed).

13. The little girl never gets tired of (ask) her mother questions, but her

mother often gets tired of (ask) so many questions.

14. They lived in a small town for ten years and then moved without (make)

friends with any of their neighbours.

15. The little boy was punished for (tell) a lie by (send) to bed without

his supper.

16. Mary was chosen a year ago to act in the school play. She was very

pleased at (choose).

17. Jack doesn't like boxing. I don't know if he is afraid of (hurt) his

opponent or of (hurt) himself.

18. He was taken to hospital unconscious after the accident. He died in

hospital without (recover) consciousness.

19. I always treat people politely and I insist on (treat) politely.

20. The boy was very hungry at eleven o'clock in spite of (eat) a big

breakfast two hours earlier.

21. She didn't get out of bed until ten o'clock in spite of (wake up) at


3. Complete the following sentences using a gerund.

Example: I/m good at mending things.

a. I have difficulty in

b. Im very interested in

c. Im thinking of

d. He saved up 1000 for a holiday by

e. I sometimes worry about not

f. Thank you for

g. Im looking forward to

h. She left the room without

i. I stayed in bed all day instead of

4. Use your imagination to complete the following sentences.

Example: Working in a coal mine is dangerous, but well-paid.

a. Finding a good job these days

b. Living in a big city

c. Taking regular exercise

d. Travelling by air

e. Being self-employed

f. Learning a foreign language

5. Complete the following sentences using infinitives.

Example: It is easy to find cheap places to eat.

a. How do you do. Pleased to

b. When youre old, it can be difficult to

c. I was surprised to

d. If you havent got much money, its impossible to

e. It can be expensive to

f. When you travel abroad, its important to

6. There are many expressions with go + gerund which are concerned with

activities, sports, and physical recreation.

go dancing / go skiing / go running

Complete these sentences with go + a suitable gerund.

a. I __________ yesterday, but I didnt buy anything.

b. I __________ by the river tomorrow, but Im sure I wont catch anything.

c. Whenever theres enough snow, we __________ every weekend.

d. If I had enough money, Id buy a yacht and __________ in the


e. We had a lovely holiday. We __________ every day. The water was lovely.

7. Fill the gaps with one of the verbs which follow the passage, in either

the gerund or infinitive form.

Janes a nurse, but shes trying (1)__________ a new job. Although she

enjoys (2)__________ people, nursing is not very well paid, and she cannot

afford (3)__________ all her bills. She finds it impossible to live on such

a low salary without (4)__________ her account at the bank. Her flat needs

(5)__________ , and she would like (6)__________ a car. She managed

(7)__________ enough last year for a short holiday by (8)__________ some

extra money in her spare time, and this year, shes hoping (9)___________

some friends in France. She has stopped (10)__________ to the theatre,

which used to be one of her greatest pleasures. Shes thinking of

(11)__________ in America, where she could earn a higher salary in a

private hospital, but would prefer (12)__________ in this country if

possible. She likes (13)__________ to see her parents whenever she wants

to. A friend of hers went to America after (14)__________ university, but

began (15)__________ her friends so badly that she had to come back.


look after











be able to



8. Gap filling

Complete the following story. The lines show the number of words missing.

The words are not always gerunds or infinitives.

Example: He tried to find a job.

Id like you to help me.

John Bradley was surprised (a) __________ __________ a letter waiting

for him on his desk when he arrived at work. Before (b) __________ it, he

hung up his coat and took out his glasses.

Dear Mr Bradley, he read, We are sorry (c) __________ __________ you

that your services are no longer required

He couldnt believe it. After (d) __________ for the company for thirty

years, he had been made redundant, one Monday morning, without (e)

__________ warned in any way at all. There was no point (f) __________

__________ the letter. The ending was obvious. Thank you for your loyalty

and dedication over the years, and we hope you will enjoy (g)__________

more time to spend

The company wanted (h) __________ to go away quietly and enjoy his

premature retirement. He was fifty-two. How could he (i) __________

__________ find another job at this age? He knew that firms were not

interested (j) __________ __________ people over forty-five, let alone

over fifty. Could he still afford (k) __________ __________ his daughters

to their expensive school?

He sat back in his chair and looked out of the window, wondering (l)

__________ __________ __________ next. He decided (m) __________

___________ the office as soon as possible. He did not want (n) ___________

to see him while he left so depressed. So he put on his coat and for the

last time closed the office door behind him. He stopped (o)__________

__________ goodbye to the telephonist, whom he had known for years, and

left the building.

Out in the street, it had begun (p) __________ __________ . He had

forgotten (q)__________ __________ his umbrella that morning, so he turned

up his overcoat collar and walked towards the station (r) __________

__________ his train home. He didnt know what (s) __________ __________

to his wife. The thought of breaking the news to her (t)__________

__________ feel sick.

9. Adjective + infinitive

Rewrite the sentences, using the adjectives in brackets.

Example: I heard you passed your driving test. (delighted)

I was delighted to hear that you passed your driving test.

a. I learned that your aunt died. (sorry)

b. He wanted to know where we had been. (anxious)

c. She found that her husband was still alive. (amazed)

d. I see youre still smoking. (disappointed)

e. He learned that he had nearly died. (shocked)

10. Verbs + gerund or infinitive

Rewrite the sentences, using the verbs in brackets.

Example: Come to the party. Youll really enjoy it, he said to her.


He persuaded her to go to the party.

a. Yes, I did drive too fast through the town, she said. (admit)

b. Ill lend you some money, if you like, he said to me. (offer)

c. If I were you, Id accept the job, he said to his daughter. (advise)

d. Why dont you have a holiday in my country cottage? he said to us.


e. You must pay for the damage youve done, she said. So I paid. (make)

f. I havent smoked for three years, she said. (stop)

g. We needed petrol, so we went to a service station. (stop)

h. I didnt buy food for dinner so we had to go out. (forget)

i. But I fed the cat. (remember)

j. I had piano lessons for years, but I was never very good. (try)

11. To used instead of whole infinitive

Notice that the whole infinitive need not be repeated if it is


Example: A You look terrible. You should have a holiday.

B Im going to. (Im going to have a holiday)

a. A Why arent you going to work?

B (not want)

b. A Can you come round for a meal tonight?

B (love) , but

c. A Im afraid I cant take you to the airport after all. Sorry.

B (promise) But

d. A Why cant I take this book from the library?

B (not allow)

e. A Why have you painted the wall black?

B (tell)

A No, I didnt. I told you to paint it pale yellow.

f. A Did you go out for a meal with him?

B (not ask)

12. Talking versus a talk

Compare the following sentences.

Talking to someone about a problem usually helps to solve it.

I had a talk with Susan last night.

The gerund is used when we speak in general. To speak about one specific

occasion, we can use some verbs as nouns in the structure have a + noun.

Write two sentences for each of the following words, one with a gerund

and one with have a + noun.

Ride; drink; look; wash; quarrel; walk

13. Noun + preposition

Many nouns are followed by prepositions. Put the correct preposition into

each gap.

a. I got a cheque __________ five hundred pounds in the post today.

b. There has been a rise __________ the number of violent crimes.

c. Have you seen this photo __________ my daughter? Isnt she beautiful?

d. The difference __________ you and me is that I dont mind hard work.

e. I can think of no reason __________ such strange behaviour.

f. It took a long time to find a solution __________ the problem.

g. Could you give me some information __________ train times?

h. Im having trouble __________ my car. It wont start.

i. Shes doing research __________ the causes of tooth decay.

j. This is a machine __________ grinding coffee.

Unit 6 Reported speech

Report structures: that-clauses

Main points

o You usually use your own words to report what someone said, rather than

repeating their exact words.

o Report structures contain a reporting clause first, then a reported


o When you are reporting a statement, the reported clause is a that-


o You must mention the hearer with tell. You need not mention the hearer

with say.

When you are reporting what someone said, you do not usually repeat their

exact words, you use your own words in a report structure.

Jim said he wanted to go home.

Jims actual words might have been Its time I went or I must go.

Report structures contain two clauses. The first clause is the reporting

clause, which contains a reporting verb such as say, tell, or ask.

She said that she'd been to Belgium.

The man in the shop told me how much it would cost.

You often use verbs that refer to peoples thoughts and feelings to report

what people say. If someone says I am wrong, you might report this as He

felt that he was wrong.

The second clause in a report structure is the reported clause, which

contains the information that you are reporting. The reported clause can be

a that-clause, a to-infinitive clause, an if-clause, or a wh-word


She said that she didn't know.

He told me to do it.

Mary asked if she could stay with us.

She asked where he'd gone.

If you want to report a statement, you use a that-clause after a verb

such as say.

|admit |argue |decide |insist |reply |

|agree |claim |deny |mention |say |

|answer |complain |explain |promise |warn |

He said that he would go.

I replied that I had not read it yet.

You often omit that from the that-clause, but not after answer,

argue, explain, or reply.

They said I had to see a doctor first.

He answered that the price would be three pounds.

You often mention the hearer after the preposition to with the following


|admit |complain|mention |suggest |

|announce|explain |say | |

He complained to me that you were rude.

Tell and some other reporting verbs are also used with a 'that'-clause,

but with these verbs you have to mention the hearer as the object of the


|convince|notify |reassure|tell |

|inform |persuade|remind | |

He told me that he was a farmer.

I informed her that I could not come.

The word that is often omitted after tell.

I told them you were at the dentist.

You can also mention the hearer as the object of the verb with promise

and warn.

I promised her that I wouldn't be late.

Note the differences between say and tell. You cannot use say with

the hearer as the object of the verb. You cannot say I said them you had

gone. You cannot use tell without the hearer as the object of the verb.

You cannot say I told that you had gone. You cannot use tell with to

and the hearer. You cannot say I told to them you had gone.

The reporting verbs that have the hearer as object, such as tell, can be

used in the passive.

She was told that there were no tickets left.

Most reporting verbs that do not need the hearer as object, such as say,

can be used in the passive with impersonal it as subject, but not

answer, complain, insist, promise, reply, or warn.

It was said that the money had been stolen.

Other report structures

Main points

o When reporting an order, a request, or a piece of advice, the reported

clause is a 'to'-infinitive clause, used after an object

o When reporting a question, the reported clause is an 'if-clause or a 'wh'-

word clause

o Many reporting verbs refer to people's thoughts and feelings

If you want to report an order a request or a piece of advice you use a

to-infinitive clause after a reporting verb such as tell ask or

advise. You mention the hearer as the object of the verb before the to-

infinitive clause.

|advise |command |invite |remind |

|ask |forbid |order |tell |

|beg |instruct |persuade |warn |

Johnson told her to wake him up.

He ordered me to fetch the books.

He asked her to marry him.

He advised me to buy it.

If the order request or advice is negative you put not before the to-


He had ordered his officers not to use weapons.

She asked her staff not to discuss it publicly.

Doctors advised him not to play for three weeks.

If the subject of the to-infinitive clause is the same as the subject of

the main verb you can use ask or beg to report a request without

mentioning the hearer.

I asked to see the manager.

Both men begged not to be named.

If you want to report a question you use a verb such as ask followed by

an if-clause or a wh-word clause.

I asked if I could stay with them.

They wondered whether the time was right.

He asked me where I was going.

She inquired how Abraham was getting on.

Note that in reported questions the subject of the question comes before

the verb just as it does in affirmative sentences.

Many reporting verbs refer to peoples thoughts and feelings but are often

used to report what people say. For example if someone says I must go you

might report this as She wanted to go or She thought she should go.

Some of these verbs are followed by:

a that-clause

|accept |fear |imagine |think |

|believe |feel |know |understan|

| | | |d |

|consider |guess |suppose |worry |

We both knew that the town was cut off.

I had always believed that I would see him again.

a to infinitive clause

|intend |plan |want |

He doesnt want to get up.

a that-clause or a to-infinitive clause

|agree |expect |hope |regret |wish |

|decide |forget |prefer |remember | |

She hoped she wasnt going to cry.

They are in love and wish to marry.

Expect and prefer can also be followed by an object and a to-


I m sure she doesnt expect you to take the plane.

The headmaster prefers them to act plays they have written themselves.

A speaker's exact words are more often used in stories than in ordinary


I knew Id seen you, I said.

Only one replied, the Englishman.

Let s go and have a look at the swimming pool, she suggested.

In ordinary conversation it is normal to use a report structure rather than

to repeat someone's exact words.


: 1, 2, 3, 4