1. Match the reports with the actual words used.

Example: 1 h;

1. They said they had to go.

2. He said he would help if he could.

3. She promised she would visit us.

4. He suggested that we should write to the boss.

5. They insisted we should stay a bit longer.

6. They complained that they were too busy.

7. She mentioned that she had met you.

8. I explained that they should send a letter.

a. You cant leave yet. Its only eleven oclock.

b. Well, Ill do whatever I can for you.

c. If I were you I would get in touch with the manager.

d. I bumped into your brother in London yesterday.

e. Its no good just telephoning. Put something in writing.

f. Ill certainly come and see you some time.

g. We have far too much work at the moment.

h. Im afraid its time for us to leave.

2. Use the appropriate form of these verbs to complete the definitions and


|admit announce argue complain deny mention |

|explain inform |

1. If you __inform__ someone that something is the case, you tell them

about it. EG I __informed__ her that I was unwell and could not come to

her party.

2. If you __________ something, you agree, often reluctantly, that it is

true. EG I must __________ that I had my doubts.

3. When you __________ something, you say that it not true. EG Green

__________ that he had done anything illegal.

4. If you __________ something, you tell people about it publicly or

officially. EG It was __________ that the Prime Minister would speak on

television that evening.

5. If you __________ , you tell someone about a situation affecting you

that is wrong or unsatisfactory. EG He __________ that the office was not


6. If you __________ something, you say it, but do not spend long talking

about it. EG I __________ to Tom that I was thinking of going back to


7. If you __________ something, you describe it so that it can be

understood. EG He __________ that they had to buy a return ticket.

8. If you __________ that something is the case, you state your opinion

about it and give reasons why you think it is true. EG Some people

__________ that nuclear weapons have helped to keep the peace.

3. Use one of the words given in brackets to complete each of the sentences


1. I _explained_ to him that he would have to wait. (explained / told)

2. He __________ me that it was time to go. (mentioned / informed)

3. She __________ to them that they should reconsider their decision.

(suggested / persuaded)

4. We were __________ that you would pay the bill. (told / said)

5. It was __________ that there would be another meeting the following

week. (informed / announced)

6. George __________ to me that he might look in to see me. (promised /


4. Rewrite the sentences below as orders or requests with a to-infinitive

clause, and the words in brackets.

Example: Do you think you could look after the children? (David / ask /


David asked Mary to look after the children.

1. I think you should try to get more sleep. (Johns doctor / advise /


2. You can come round and see us any time. (We / invite / our friends)

3. Will you take the money to the bank, please? (Jack / tell / me)

4. Dont forget to come half an hour early on Tuesday. (Mr Brown / remind

/ the students)

5. Please write to me every day. (Bill / beg / Maria)

Now do these with not and to-infinitive clause.

6. You shouldnt play with fire. (I / warn / the children)

7. I dont think you should go to England in the winter. (My grandfather

/ advise / me)

8. You really ought not to go out alone after dark. (They / tell / the


9. Please dont make an official complaint. (The manger / persuade / her)

5. Now do these sentences with ask and a wh'-word clause.

Example: What time does the match start please? (I / a policeman)

I asked a policeman what time the match started.

1. Where are you going to spend the holiday? (Joe / Mary)

2. Why are the tickets so expensive? (Everybody / us)

3. How old are Marys children? (Frank / his wife)

4. Whos going to buy your house? (Mrs Jones / her neighbour)

5. When are you planning to come to Darlington? (Bill / his friend)

6. What are you going to do next? (I / Maria)

7. Were can I get the bus to Liverpool? (Peter / a policeman)

6. In this exercise you have to write what you would say in these


Example: Ann says Im tired. Five minutes later she says Lets play

tennis. What do you say? You said you were tired.

1. Your friend says Im hungry so you go to a restaurant. When you get

there he says I dont want to eat. What do you say? You said

2. Tom tells you Ann has gone away. Later that day you meet her. What do

you say?

Tom told

3. George said I dont smoke. A few days later you see him smoking a

cigarette. What do you say to him? You said

4. You arranged to meet Jack. He said I wont be late. At last he arrives

20 minutes late. What do you say? You

5. Sue said I cant come to the party tonight. That night you see her at

the party. What do you say to her?

6. Ann says Im working tomorrow evening. Later that day she says Lets

go out tomorrow evening. What do you say?

7. Now you have to read a sentence and write a new sentence with the same


Example: Listen carefully, he said to us. He told us to listen carefully.

1. Eat more fruit and vegetables, the doctor said.

2. Read the instructions before you switch on the machine, he said to me.

3. Shut the door but dont lock it, she said to us.

4. Can you speak more slowly? I cant understand, he said to me.

5. Dont come before 6 oclock, I said to him.

Unit 7 Conditionals

Conditional clauses using if

Main points

o You use conditional clauses to talk about a possible situation and its


o Conditional clauses can begin with if.

o A conditional clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The

conditional clause can come before or after the main clause.

You use conditional clauses to talk about a situation that might possibly

happen and to say what its results might be.

You use if to mention events and situations that happen often, that may

happen in the future, that could have happened in the past but did not

happen, or that are unlikely to happen at all.

If the light comes on, the battery is OK.

I'll call you if I need you.

If I had known. I'd have told you.

If she asked me, I'd help her.

When you are talking about something that is generally true or happens

often, you use a present or present perfect tense in the main clause and

the conditional clause.

If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

If an advertisement does not tell the truth, the advertiser is committing

an offence.

If the baby is crying, it is probably hungry.

If they have lost any money, they report it to me.

Warning: You do not use the present continuous in both clauses. You do not

say If they are losing money, they are getting angry.

When you use a conditional clause with a present or present perfect tense,

you often use an imperative in the main clause.

Wake me up if youre worried.

If he has finished, ask him to leave quietly.

If you are very early, dont expect them to be ready.

When you are talking about something which may possibly happen in the

future, you use a present or present perfect tense in the conditional

clause, and the simple future in the main clause

If I marry Celia, we will need the money.

If you are going to America, you will need a visa.

If he has done the windows, he will want his money.

Warning: You do not normally use will in conditional clauses. You do not

say If I will see you tomorrow, I will give you the book.

When you are talking about something that you think is unlikely to happen,

you use the past simple or past continuous in the conditional clause and

would in the main clause.

If I had enough money, I would buy the car.

If he was coming, he would ring.

Warning: You do not normally use would in conditional clauses. You do not

say If I would do it, I would do it like this.

Were is sometimes used instead of was in the conditional clause,

especially after I.

If I were as big as you, I would kill you.

If I werent so busy, I would do it for you.

You often say If I were you when you are giving someone advice.

If I were you, I would take the money.

I should keep out of Brendan's way if I were you.

When you are talking about something which could have happened in the past

but which did not actually happen, you use the past perfect in the

conditional clause. In the main clause, you use would have and a past


If he had realised that, he would have run away.

I wouldnt have been so depressed if I had known how common this feeling


Warning: You do not use would have in the conditional clause. You do not

say If I would have seen him, I would have told him.


1. Put the verb into the correct form


1. You (to speak) better if you (to be) more attentive.

2. If he (to understand) the situation, he (to act) differently.

3. He (to catch) the train if he (to make haste).

4. If I (to be) you, I (to consider) the matter settled.

5. If only he (to be) here, he (can) tell you.

6. If I (to be) in your place, I (to think) as you do.

7. He not (to do) it if you not (to help) him.

8. If he (to be) present, he (may) object.

9. She (to come) to see you if she not (to be tired).

10. If I (to get) the tickets before twelve o'clock, I (to come) straight



1. I think that if we (to take shelter) under these trees, we not (to get


2. If I (to hesitate) much longer before getting into the water, he not (to

let) me swim at all today.

3. If she (to come) earlier, she (to have been able) to see him before he

went out.

4. He (to go) for a ride with you, if he (to repair) his bicycle.

5. If a year ago the sailors (to be told) they were to undertake a trip of

this sort, they (to be surprised).

6. If he (to be) present, this not (to occur).

7. If the storm not (to rage), the ship (to leave) the harbour last night.

8. If our telephone not (to be) out of order, I (to ring) you up this


9. If you (to come) between two and three yesterday, you (to find) me at


10. If I (to have) to carry that heavy box, I (to be) obliged to drop it

after five minutes.

11. I not (to go) to sleep over that book if it not (to be) so dull.

12. If I (to know) you (to come), I of course (to stay) at home.

13. If anyone (to say) such a thing to me, I (to feel) hurt.

14. We never (to solve) the riddle, if you not (to put) us on the track.

2. Open the brackets


1. If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you.

2. If I (know) that you were coming I'd have baked a cake.

3. If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat.

4. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.

5. I wouldn't have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes.

6. I (offer) to help him if I had realised that he was ill.

7. If I (realise) what a bad driver you were I wouldn't have come with you.

8. If I had realised that the traffic lights were red I (stop).

9. The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door.

10. If he had known that the river was dangerous lie (not try) to swim

across it.

11. If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you.

12. If lie had known the whole story he not be) so angry.

13. If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded.

14. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions.

15. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.

16. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) down the wrong


17. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was


18. I (take) a taxi if I had realised that it was such a long way.

19. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going.

20. If you (not sneeze) he wouldn't have known that we were there.


1. If I (see) you in the street yesterday, of course I (say) "Good


2. I'm sorry I threw the newspaper away. I (not throw) it away if I (know)

you had wanted it.

3. Why didn't you ask me to help you? -Of course I (help) you if you (ask)

me to.

4. I'm sorry I couldn't come to the cinema with you last Friday. - I (come)

if I (not be) so busy.

5. I (not cleave) the office early yesterday if I (not finish) my work.

3. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

Example: 1 j

1. Dan might help you ... a ... if they are enjoying themselves.

2. You are sure to be late ... b ... if I can remember her phone number.

3. You'll enjoy the Jacques Tatty film ... c ... if you miss the bus.

4. They always stay out late ... d ... if you don't want to.

5. They'll understand it all right... e ... if you phone while I'm out.

6. I'll give her a call ... f ... if you explain it to them.

7. Bill will take a message ... g ... if I have the time.

8. I'll do the shopping ... h ... if you don't have a ticket.

9. You can't get in ... i ... if you can understand French.

10. You needn't come to the party ... j ... if you ask him.

4. Complete these sentences by putting the verb in brackets in the right


Example: If you ask Liz, she will tell you what to do. (ask)

1. He's going to visit some friends in Athens if he time. (have)

2. You shouldn't interrupt them if they (work)

3. Maria will get you some money if she to the bank. (go)

4. I'll have a word with Jack if he at home. (be)

5. Match these parts to make conditional sentences.

Example: 1 i

1. If I had their address ... a ... it would cost over 650.

2. If you saw her now ... b ... you might earn a bit more money.

3. If I took more exercise c ... I could probably stay with Michael.

4. If you got a new job d ... she must have been out at work.

5. If you asked Heather e ... she would give you a certificate.

6. If I travelled first class f ... she would probably give you a lift.

7. If it was a little warmer g ... we could go for a swim.

8. If she didn't answer the phone h ... I might lose a bit of weight.

9. If you went to the doctor i ... I could write and ask them.

10. If I stopped off in Ankara j ... you would hardly recognise her.

Conditional clauses using modals and 'unless'

Main points

o You can use a modal in a conditional clause.

o You use 'unless' to mention an exception to what you are saying.

You sometimes use modals in conditional clauses. In the main clause, you

can still use a present tense for events that happen often, will for

events that are quite likely in the future, would for an event that is

unlikely to happen, and would have for events that were possible but did

not happen.

If he cant come, he usually phones me.

If they must have it today, they will have to come back at five oclock.

If I could only find the time, Id do it gladly.

If you could have seen him. you would have laughed too.

Should is sometimes used in conditional clauses to express greater


If any visitors should come, I'll say you aren't here.

You can use other modals besides will, would and would have in the

main clause with their usual meanings.

She might phone me, if she has time.

You could come. if you wanted to.

If he sees you leaving, he may cry.

Note that you can have modals in both clauses: the main clause and the

conditional clause.

If he can't come, he will phone.

In formal English, if the first verb in a conditional clause is had,

should, or were, you can put the verb at the beginning of the clause

and omit 'if. For example, instead of saying If he should come. I will

tell him you are sick, it is possible to say Should he come, I will tell

him you are sick.

Should ministers decide to hold an inquiry, we would welcome it.

Were it all true, it would still not excuse their actions.

Had I known. I would not have done it.

When you want to mention an exception to what you are saying, you use a

conditional clause beginning with unless.

You will fail your exams. You will fail your exams unless you work harder.

Note that you can often use if...not instead of unless.

You will fail your exams if you do not work harder.

When you use unless, you use the same tenses that you use with if.

She spends Sundays in the garden unless the weather is awful.

We usually walk, unless we're going shopping.

He will not let you go unless he is forced to do so.

You wouldn't believe it, unless you saw it.

If and unless are not the only ways of beginning conditional clauses.

You can also use as long as, only if, provided, provided that,

providing, providing that, or so long as. These expressions are all

used to indicate that one thing only happens or is true if another thing

happens or is true.

I will come only if nothing is said to the press.

She was prepared to come, provided that she could bring her daughter.

Providing they remained at a safe distance, we would be all right.

Detergent cannot harm a fabric, so long as it has been properly dissolved.

We were all right as long as we kept our heads down.


1. Rewrite these sentences as conditionals.

Example: I cant write to her because I dont have her address.

I could write to her, if I had her address.

1. Id like to go abroad but I cant afford it.

2. Im not going to buy that car because it's so expensive.

3. We cant go out because its raining.

4. She wont come to the party because shes away on holiday.

5. The central heating isn't working so we cant turn it on.

2. Rewrite these sentences as conditionals.

Example: Unfortunately I didnt see him, so I couldnt give him your


If I had seen him, I could have given him your message.

1. Unfortunately he didnt pass his exams or he might have gone to


2. He didnt realise what was happening or he would have run away.

3. Fortunately I didnt hear what she said or I would have been very angry.

4. They got in because you didnt lock the door properly.

5. It only happened because you didnt follow the instructions.

6. Luckily she didnt find out or she would have been furious.

7. It's lucky we booked a room or we would have had nowhere to stay.

8. Its a good job we werent going any faster or someone could have been


9. He was so tired that he went home at lunchtime.

3. Match the two parts of these conditional sentences.

Example: 1 g

1. You can borrow the money ...

2. He'll probably get lost. ...

3. Had I known you were coming. ...

4. George says he will come, ...

5. You are not allowed to park in the school,

6. Should he telephone while I'm out, ...

7. Henry Ford said you could have any colour you wanted, ...

8. Fred will be at school next week,

a ... I would have invited you to lunch.

b ... would you ask him to call back later?

c ... provided he has recovered from his cold.

d ... unless you are a member of staff.

e ... as long as it was black.

f ... provided he can stay overnight.

g ... so long as you promise to pay it back.

h ... unless someone shows him the way.

: 1, 2, 3, 4