–ефераты. American Cinema ( ино и театры јмерики)






most of the movies and owned most of the movie theatres in the United

States. Making films is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million

dollars to produce a movie. Some of this goes to pay the salary of well-

known movie stars and large sums can be spent on special effects like

computer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may

cost another 17 million dollars or more. To cover these costs film

companies receive money for movie theatre tickets and the sale or rental of

videos. They also sell CDs of the soundtrack and toys, books, or clothes

associated with the movie. Indeed, there was a time when Hollywood was the

most famous place in the USA, if not the world.

The Hollywood story begins at the end of the last century.

1887. A man called Harvey Wilcox bought a large ranch in a district

north-west of Los Angeles in California. His wife called the land

СHollywoodТ.

1902-04. The first cinemas (СnickelodeonsТ) opened in the USA.

1911. Two brothers from New Jersey built HollywoodТs first film studio.

1912. Film-makers from the east coast of the USA came to California,

first in small number and then in thousands.

1912. The Hollywood industry was born.

There were several reasons why film makers went to Hollywood. Firstly,

there was a lot of space, secondly, CaliforniaТs warm sunny weather was

ideal for making films outside. Thirdly, there was a variety of locations

for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts, villages, woodland and rivers.

By 1939 the great dream factory studios made nearly 500 movies a year,

drew American audience of 50 million a week and earned over 700 million

dollars at the box office-all with the help of 30,000 employees who dealt

with everything from processing film to fan mail.

In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood became more international. Famous stars

like Maurice Chevalier from France, Marlene Dietrich from Germany and Sofia

Loren from Italy came to Hollywood. Even today many international stars

like Gerard Depardier and Arnold Schwarzeneger make films in Hollywood.

A big film studio, like MGM or Warner Brothers, brought to life a lot

of film stars. They could make or break a star.

The Hollywood film studio produced different types. There were the

silent Charlie Chaplin comedies of the 20s, gangster films, Frankenstein

horror films and Greta Garbo romantic melodramas of the 30s, the musicals

of the 40s and 50s, the westerns (cowboy films) of the 50s, the historical

epics of the 60s, the science fiction films of the 70s and the Steven

Spielberg action films and violent horror films of the 80s. Who knows what

the next century will be famous for?

Beverly Hills.

Most visitors to Los Angeles, California want to go and see Beverly

Hills. This is where you find the homes of the movie stars. But Beverly

Hills isnТt Los Angeles. ItТs a small city next to Los Angeles. All kinds

of celebrities live in Beverly Hills. These celebrities may be movie stars,

television stars, sport stars, or other people in the news. Tourists can

buy special maps for the homes of the stars. These homes are very

beautiful. They usually have swimming pools and tennis courts. But

sometimes you cannot see very much. The homes have high walls or trees

around them. Beverly Hills is also famous for Rodeo Drive. This is one of

the most expensive shopping streets in the United States. Rodeo Drive

started to be an elegant street in the 1960s. Many famous stores are opened

on the street. People liked all the new styles and fashions they could buy.

Today you can find the most expensive and unusual clothing, jewelry and

furniture in the world on Rodeo Drive. Rodeo Drive is a very special

street. When you want to park your car in public parking, an attendant will

come and park your car for you. Beverly Hills is really a small city. Only

About 35,000 people live there. But during the day more than 200,000 people

come to Beverly Hills to work or to shop!

The major film genres.

The major film genres developed in the United States are the following:

Comedy. Charles Spencer Chaplin became the most widely recognized

comedy figure in the world. He emphasized the development of character and

plot structure, in contrast to the simple reliance on gags and gimmicks

that characterized the work of other comedy producers of the day.

Westerns. The Western (a film about life in the American West in the

past) was the first American genre to be developed and has remained a

staple of the American motion-picture art and industry. It has been

estimated that one quarter of US films have been Westerns. However, today

most American Westerns are made in Italy and are called '"spaghetti

Westerns".

Musicals. The musicals of the late 1920s and the early 1930s consisted

of a series of "numbers" by established stars of Broad-way, vaudeville and

radio. Later manifestations of the form were the biographical musicals,

often highly fictionalized, about great composers, musicians, singers,

providing an opportunity to string together some of their most popular

hits. The transferring of musicals intact from the Broad-way stage became

almost automatic beginning in the 1950s.

Gangster films. While the Western deals with a mythical American past

and the musical with a fantasy land, the gangster film is closely tied to a

real facet of American life. In earlier films, the gangster had risen to

the top to enjoy wealth, power, beautiful women, expensive homes and large

cars, but before the end of the film he was bound to be caught by law-

enforcement officers, overthrown by fellow gang members or killed. Such

punishment was considered obligatory. By 1971, however, "The Godfather"

showed how far the genre has evolved: Marion Brando, in the title role,

dies of old age. The gangster was another businessman.

War films. They have evolved into a major American genre, since wars

have occupied so much of contemporary American history. The Second World

War has been the subject of the greatest number of American films in this

genre.

Horror films (thrillers). In the 1920s the creation of a monster who

gets out of control or is coming to life from non-human beings who survive

by killing the living provided the basic story lines of countless horror

films. These films also have dealt with supernatural forces that manifest

themselves as an unseen power rather than in individual form. A third major

kind of horror films deals with people who are insane or in the grip of

psychological powers beyond their control.

Horror films as a genre is associated with the name of Alfred

Hitchcock. Like Walt Disney with animated cartoons, Alfred Hitchcock was

thought not just to have invented a film genre but to have patented it

(hence "Hitch", another name for a horror film).

Detective and spy films. These include first of all the James Bond

series. Hitchcock's films of this genre feature ordinary people who

accidentally become involved with spies or other evil doers.

Science fiction. After the Second World War science-fiction films

increasingly suggested that the dangers of the future stemmed from what

human beings were doing in the present.

Film Companies

Columbia Pictures (also Columbia)-American film company, which produces

films for cinema and television.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) Ч a film company based in Hollywood, which

has made many famous films and animated cartoons.

Paramount- a film company in Hollywood.

20th Century-Fox Ч an American film company.

United Artists Ч a film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Universal Ч n film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Warner Bros (Brothers) Ч an American film company.

Film Directors and Producers

Alien, Woody (1935Ч) Ч a comic actor and maker of humorous films. Since

the late 1960s, he has been directing films and acting in them, usually

playing a neurotic, bookish New Yorker. Some of his best-known films have

been "Annie Hall", "Manhattan" and "Hannah and Her Sisters".

Capra, Frank (1897-1991) - a film director, best known for the films

"Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" and "It's a Wonderful Night".

Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) Ч an English actor and

director who worked mainly in the United States in silent black-and-white

comedy films. He created the beloved character, the Little Tramp, who wore

a shabby black suit, derby hat and floppy shoes, and walked with the backs

of his feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always walked with

a cane.

By 1918 Chaplin had forsaken short comedies for longer, independently

made films, including "Shoulder Arms" (1918) and "The Kid" (1921). His

major films, produced for United Artists (a film company which he helped to

found in 1923), included "The Gold Rush" (1925), "The Circus" (1928), "City

Lights" (1931) and "Modern Times" (1936), the latter two made as silent

films with synchronized sound effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for the

first time in "The Great Dictator" (1940), which ridiculed Hitler and

Mussolini. In "Monsieur Verdoux" (1947), which draws an acid analogy

between warfare and business morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the

film provided further ammunition for a growing anti-Chaplin group who

attacked his unconventional personal life and political views.

After 1952 Chaplin resided in Switzerland. He starred in his production

"A King in New York" (1957), a sharp satire on contemporary America, and

wrote and directed "A Countess from Hongkong" (1967). Chaplin made a

triumphant return to the United States in 1972. He was given an Academy

Award (an Oscar) for his part in "making motion pictures the art form of

the century".

Coppola, Francis Ford (1939)- a film director, best known for the films

"'The Godfather" and "Apocalypse Now".

Ford, John (1895-1973) - a film director, especially known for his

Westerns including "Stagecoach", "How the West Was Won", etc.

Goldwin, Samuel (1882-1947) - a film producer, head of one of the

companies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying odd things

like "include me out".

Griffith, D. W. (1875-1948) - a film maker, known especially for his

use of new photographic methods and for his epic silent films, such as "The

Birth of the Nation" (1915) that required huge casts and enormous sets.

Griffith directed the first film, "The Adventures of Dollie", in 1908

and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With "The Birth of the Nation",

he created a landmark in film industry. Also influential on the future of

the film was "Intolerance" (1916). Griffith continued to make successful

films throughout the 1920s. However, the Victorian sentiment that pervades

his films was increasingly alien to the theme. He failed to make the

transition to sound pictures.

Russel, Ken (1926-) Ч a film director, best known for documentary films

and for the film "Women in Love".

Scorsese, Martin (1942Ч) Ч a film director whose works include "Taxi

Driver", "The Last Temptation of Christ", etc.

Spielberg, Steven (1946Ч) Ч a film director who has made many very

popular films, including "Jaws", "LT", "Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Star

Wars", "Empire of the Sun", etc. His films

are well known for being very fast moving and full of exciting action.

Zinneman, Frederick (1907- ) Ц an American film director, born in

Austria, famous for the films such as "High Noon" and "The Day of Jackal".

Wilder Billy (1906-) Ц a film director whose films include "Sunset

Boulevard" and "Some Like It Hot".

Films.

"The Birth of the Nation" Ч a dramatic silent film from 1915 about the

American Civil War. "The Birth of the Nation" was directed by D. W.

Griffith. The film, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The Clansman", has been

condemned for historical distortion and racial bias, but it became a

landmark in the artistic development of motion pictures through its

successful introduction of many now-standard film techniques.

"Planet of the Apes " - a film set in about imaginary future where

monkeys rule the world.

''Psycho'' Ч a horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is

especially known for a scene in which the character Mario (Janet Leigh) is

stabbed in a shower by Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins).

"Rocky" Ч the first of a group of films (later ones were called "Rocky

II", "Rock III", etc.), starring Sylvester Stallone as a determined boxer

called Rocky. In each of the films the main character overcomes

difficulties and win a fight against a strong opponent. The films are

especially popular with young people.

"Star Wars " Ч a popular science-fiction film about the battle between

the hero, Luke Skywalker, and Darth Vader, an evil person who wears a black

mask over his face and comes from an evil empire. The film was directed by

Steven Spielberg and is remembered for its many new exciting special

effects.

"The Terminator" Ч a film with Arnold Schwarzenegger, set in Los

Angeles in the near future in which a lot of people are killed. The film

was followed by "Terminator II".

Actors and Actresses.

Astaire, Fred (1899Ч1987) Ч a dancer, singer and actor who made many

films, often with his dancing partner, Ginger Rogers, and who was known for

his stylishness.

Bassinger, Kim (1954Ч) Ч a film actress, known especially for playing

attractive, sexy women.

Brando, Marlon (1924Ч) Ч an actor whose films include "A Streetcar

Named Desire", "On the Waterfront", "The Godfather", etc.

Cooper, Gary (1901Ч1962) Ч an actor who often played strong, silent

heroes, for example in the film "High Noon".

Costner, Kevin (1955Ч) Ч an actor and director whose films include

"Dances with Wolves", "Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves", "JFK", etc.

Cruise, Tom (1962Ч) Ч an actor who has played leading film parts since

the early 1980s, e.g. in "Top Gun" and "Cocktail". He is especially popular

with women.

De Niro, Robert (1945Ч) Ч an actor, known especially for his part in

the films "Taxi Driver" and "The Deer Hunter".

Dietrich, Marlene (1904Ч1992) Ч an American actress and nightclub

performer, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an extremely

sexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the film

"Blue Angel".

Douglas, Kirk (1916Ч) Ч a film actor, known for playing the hero in

films such as "Spartacus".

Douglas, Michael (1944Ч) Ч a film actor, son of Kirk Douglas, known for

his part in the films "Fatal Attraction" and ''Romancing the Stone".

Eastwood, Clint (1930Ч) Ч a film actor and director, best known for

playing parts as a gunfighter in Westerns and a modern city police officer.

His characters almost always have their right on their side, and no fear.

Fonda, Henry (1905-1982) - an actor who made many films including "The

Grapes of Wrath", "Twelve Angry Men", "On Golden Pond", etc.

Fonda, Jane (1937Ч) Ч an actress, daughter of Henry Fonda, known for

her left-wing views, especially her support for Vietnam and her opposition

to the American government during the Vietnam War. Her best-known films are

"The China Syndrome" and, with her father, "On Golden Pond". She is also

known for her interest in active physical exercise.

Fonda, Peter (1939Ч) Ч an actor and director, best known for his film

"Easy Rider"; son of Henry Fonda.

Fox, Michael (1961-) -- an American actor, born in Canada, who has

appeared in such films as "Back to the Future" (parts 1, 2, 3). He is very

popular, especially with young girls.

Gable, Clark (1901-1960) - a film actor, best known for his role as

Rhett Butler in "Gone with the Wind". He also appeared in many other

Hollywood films, including "Mutiny on the Bounty", "The Misfits", etc.

Garbo, Greta (1905Ч1990) Ч an American film actress, born in Sweden.

She was celebrated for her classic beauty and her portrayals of moody

characters.

Having first attracted notice in the Swedish silent film УThe Story of

Gosta BerlingФ (1924), Garbo went to the United States in 1925 and became

perhaps the most celebrated motion-picture actress of the time, a

provocative, enigmatic embodiment of feminine beauty and mystery. УFlesh

and the DevilФ was her best-known silent film; among her notable talking

pictures were УAnna ChristieФ and the comedy УNinotchkaФ.

Greta Garbo became famous for her with drawn, aloof off-screen

personality. In the movie УGrand HotelФ, she made the famous complaint, УI

want to be alone.Ф Garbo retired from the movies in the early 1940s and

lived as a recluse ever since.

Garland, Judy (1922-1969) - a film actress and singer who was most

famous as the character of Dorothy in the film "The Wizard of Oz".

Gere, Richard (1949Ч) Ч an actor, known especially for his part in the

films "American Gigolo", "An Officer and a Gentleman" and "Pretty Woman".

Goldberg, Whoopi (1949-) - a film actress who appeared in "The Color

Purple" and "Ghost".

Grant, Cary (1904-1986) - an American actor, born in Britain, who is

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