–ефераты. American Cinema ( ино и театры јмерики)






remembered especially for his comic films including ''The Philadelphia

Story'' and ''Bringing Up Baby''.

Hoffman, Dustin (1937-) - a film actor, best known for his roles in the

films "The Graduate", "Kramer vs. Kramer", "Midnight Cowboy", "The Rain

Man", etc.

Kelly, Gene (1912-1996) - a film actor, dancer and director who

appeared in many musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, including "Singing in the

Rain", in which he sang and danced to a song with the same name.

Kelly, Grace (1928-1982) - a film actress, star of "High Noon" and

"High Society" in the 1950s, who became Princess Grace of Monaco when she

married Prince Rainier.

Marvin, Lee (1924Ч1987) Ч a film actor, known especially for playing

strong, violent characters in films such as "The Dirty Dozen" and "Point

Blank". He is also remembered for singing the song "I was born under a

wandering star" in a very deep voice.

Mathau, Walter (1922Ч) Ч an actor in films and theater, known

especially for his humorous roles, e.g. in "The Odd Couple".

Monroe, Marilyn (1926Ч1962) Ч a film actress whose real name was Norma

Jean Baker, who starred in films during the middle of the 20th century and

became the leading sex symbol of the 1950s.

Monroe first attracted notice in УThe Asphalt JungleФ, thereafter she

became a reigning screen siren. Her major films include УGentlemen Prefer

BlondesФ, УThe Seven Year ItchФ, УBus StopФ and УSome Like It HotФ.

While still in her thirties, she died of an overdose of sleeping pills.

To many people, Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappiness

that can accompany fame and glamor.

Murphy, Eddie (1961Ч) Ч an actor and comedian who first became known

for his work on the television program УSaturday Night LiveФ but now is

known mostly for his films, such as УTrading PlacesФ and УBeverly Hills

CopФ.

Newman, Paul (1925Ч) Ч an actor and director, lending male star of

Hollywood films in the 1900s and 1970s and considered very attractive. His

films include УButch Cassidy and the Sundance KidФ, УThe StingФ, УThe Color

of MoneyФ, etc.

Nicholson, Jack (1937Ч) Ч an actor who started appearing in films in

the l960s, such as УEasy RiderТТ which represented the feelings of young

Americans, and has now become a big Hollywood star.

Pacino, Al (1940Ч) Ч an actor, known for the films such as УThe

GodfatherФ and УScarfaceФ.

Poitier, Sidney (1927Ч) Ч a black Amer ican film star and director, who

was one of the first black actors to play serious parts rather than black

stereotypes.

Pryor, Richard (1940-) - a comedian who has appeared in films and made

several records. He is black and often makes jokes about situations

involving black and white people together.

Redford, Robert (1937Ч) Ч a film actor and director who was in films

such as ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid'',УThe StingФ and УOut of

AfricaФ. He is popular for his good looks as well as his acting.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947Ч) Ч an American actor, born in Austria,

whose bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr. Gcrriiaiiy and Mr.

Universe. He is best known for his part in the film УThe TerminatorФ in

which he plays the hero.

Scott, George C. (1926Ч) Ч an actor, best known for his film parts,

especially strong-willed characters, such as soldiers. He was the first

actor to refuse an Oscar.

Streisand, Barbra (1942Ч) Ч a singer and actress who has performed on

stage and in many successful film musicals, including УHello, DollyФ, УThe

Way We WereФ, УA Star is BornФ, etc.

Taylor, Elizabeth (1932Ч) Ч an American film actress, born in Britain.

She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well

known for marriages, of which there have been eight (two of them to Richard

Burton).

Temple, Shirley (1928Ч) Ч a film actress who was the child star of over

20 films in the 1930s, and in later life, as Shirley Temple Black, became a

US ambassador. She was very popular when her films first appeared because

of her style of singing, dancing and acting and her curly golden hair.

Valentino, Rudolph (1895ЧI926) Ч an American film actor, born in Italy.

He was famous for playing the part of a lover in silent films, especially

in УThe SheikhФ. He is sometimes mentioned as a typical example of a good-

looking romantic man. Valentino was a ballroom dancer and movie extra

before reaching stardom in УFour Horsemen in the ApocalypseФ (1921).

Soon he became the American womenТs idea of masculinity, and his

private life and loves were avidly reported in newspapers and magazines.

His physique, his good looks and his physical grace were well exhibited in

УThe SheikhФ and УMonsieur BeaucaireФ. ValentinoТs most successful film is

УBlood and SandФ, for here he seems able to bring some of his own

personality to the portrayal of the matador, an opportunity his other, more

stereotyped roles had thwarted. His untimely death created a national furor

and reportedly drove some of his fans to suicide.

Wayne, John (1907-1979) - a film actor who often played "tough guys",

particularly soldiers and cowboys.

Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's first singing cowboy.

In 1939, in "Stagecoach", he achieved star status. In his 50-year career he

appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his outstanding films

are "Red River", "The Quiet Man", "The High and Mighty", "The Searchers",

"True Grit", for which he won an Academy Award (1969), and "Shootist".

The characters John Wayne played, especially in Westerns ("Stagecoach",

"True Grit"), were often honest, strong, independent and patriotic. Because

he played these characters, John Wayne was thought to have those qualities

himself and was an example of a good American. His old-fashioned patriotism

made him something of a folk hero. In 1979 he was voted a Congressional

gold medal; the inscription read, "John Wayne Ч American".

Williams, Robin (1952Ч) Ч an actor and comedian whose films include

УGood Morning, VietnamФ, УDead Poets SocietyФ, etc.

Marilyn Monroe.

I think that the greatest actress not only of the USA, but of the whole

world is Marilyn Monroe. So I Сd like to tell some facts about her life.

Six queens come and go, easily crowned, easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn

MonroeТs memory has remained very much alive. Admirers still cut her

picture out of public library books, artists still paint her; even the

young have become familiar with her name and her face by watching her films

on television.

Death has changed the sexy blonde into a myth, a symbol of soft

femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes mistaken for a saintly

martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was she? Those who knew

her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the real woman

through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little girl to

her first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as the

most unappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a

tart, an enchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a

victim, and a clod СuserТ of people From the very contradiction, one can

guess that she was not simple. And obviously she had something special- not

talent, perhaps, but a certain spark. It is well known that most of her

problems had their roots in an unhappy childhood.

Marilyn had come into the world in a Los AngelТs hospital as Norma Jean

Mortensen. Her mother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen, loved her child; but since

she had to work, she left her in the hands of Ida and Albert Bolender, a

respectable couple who boarded children on their farm. Norma Jean spent her

first seven years with them. Her physical needs were well looked after, and

Gladys visited faithfully every weekend. But when she had gone, there was

not much warmth around the little girl. For Norma Jean, who was extremely

sensitive, it was a lonely, distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys bought a

house and took her daughter home with her. But she was not there much and

when she was out, Norma Jean had to stay with the elderly couple who rented

part of the house. They were not bad people, only indifferent and more

interested in drinking than in baby-sitting. When Norma Jean didnТt have to

go to school, the couple dropped her at a nearly movie house in time for

the first afternoon show. The little girl watched happily all day, and

after the last matinee she walked home by herself. In her room, later, she

would act out the whole story. In this way she developed a passion for

acting that she never outgrew. After nine months of live together, Gladys

had a mental collaps and was hospitalized. She appeared from time to time

in her daughterТs life, but more as a burden than as a support. Many people

took Norma Jean under their wings throughout the years. She looked so

insecure, so defenseless, that men and women alike felt compelled to

protect her.

However vague Norma Jean may have been about life in general, she

never felt vague about the career she wanted to have. She wanted to be an

actress. But the first three years of MarilynТs career didnТt bring her

more than a few very small parts. She kept herself alive by modeling. In

1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in СThe Asphalt JungleТ,

which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector. Another protector,

and the most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde. Hyde was a

powerful man in Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to claim

that she had talent; instead he insisted that such personality didnТt need

to be talented. He succeeded in getting her a part in СAll About EveТ, a

film that was to prove lucky for all its actors. The font mail started

piling up. The Hollywood columnists included the new blonde in their gossip

columns. Soon СLife and LookТ magazines were honoring her with long

articles, and one critic ventured to declare her Сa forceful actressТ. The

studio, after having her co-star in several pictures, finally gave her a

starring role in СNiagaraТ in 1953. She had become the FoxТs biggest

moneymaker.

Whenever she appeared she was cornered by excited admirers and

photographers. But there was no private happiness behind the facade, and

even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. She resented her

shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in the choice of her

scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculously low for a

star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late on the

set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She was

imposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone

forty or fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence.

If something displeased her, she locked herself in her dressing room, or

failed to show up at all for days. Her behavior disgusted the people who

worked with her, but her fans loved the radiant child-woman on the screen.

In 1961 after divorcing her next husband the famous American playwright

Arthur Miller, Marilyn drifted back to the West Coast to open a new page in

her life. On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in her house. She had made

many attempts at suicide before. But it does not seem that she intended to

hill herself that Saturday. When she retired for the night, she had plans

for the next day. But early in the morning her housekeeper found her dead.

The world was shocked. In the words of one of her biographers: СShe

broke her heart trying to achieve something she didnТt have in her to

accomplish.Т

Walt Disney

Walt Disney was an American artist and film producer, who was famous

for his animated cartoons. He was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his

father being Irish Canadian, his mother of German-American origin. In his

early child hood he revealed a talent for drawing and an interest in

photography. His teens he began an art course, but World War I broke out

and he drove for the Red Cross in Europe. When he got back to America he

met artist Ub Iwerks, Сand they went into business together.

In 1923 he left with his brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub

Iwerks made a series of short cartoons but lost all their money, and for

some years struggled against poverty. Luckily, WaltТs brother Roy gave him

more to start up again. The first talking picture came out in 1927 and

Disney realized that sound held the key to the future of films. He

developed many techniques in producing cartoons.

His most famous characters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first

Mickey Mouse cartoon was drawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which

brought great success to its creator. In the early cartoons he was really

horrible. He looked quite rat-like with long pointed nose and small eyes.

Later his face changed. His head got as big as his body or almost, his

eyes got bigger, too. He got younger instead of older. That makes him

cuter. Now it is an acceptable symbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created

in 1936. Walt Disney took the biggest risk of his career and spent a

fortune on a full-length cartoon. Finally, the first full-length cartoon

feature film УSnow White and the Seven DwarfsФ was brought out in 1935,

which the public paid millions of dollars to see The songs to the cartoon

were written by Frank Churchill. After the Second World War Disney

turned his attention to real Ч life nature studies and non-cartoon films

with living actors.

In the 1950Тs and 1960Тs, Walt Disney began developing the family-

entertainment parks, Disneyland and Disney World. The first Disneyland was

opened in southern California in 1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los

Angeles, at Anaheim. Of all the show-places none is as famous as

Disneyland. This superb kingdom of fantasy linked to technology was created

by Walt Disney. The park is divided into six themes and there is so much to

see and do in each that no one would attempt to see all of them in one

visit. For extended visits, there are hotels nearby. In 1971 Disney World

was opened in Florida.

Walt Disney died in California at the age of 65. But his films are

still shown regularly at the cinema, because of their time1esS quality and

will be shown for years to come.Walter (Walt) Elias Disney has won more

УOscarsФ Ч the awards of the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts

and Sciences, instituted on May 16, 1929 and named after Oscar Pierce of

Texas, USA Ч than any other person:20 statuettes and 12 other plagues and

certificates, including posthumous awards.

Titanic.

The shooting of СTitanicТ in 1997 brought people flocking to the

cinemas. It has become a blockbuster and brought big profits to the

producers. The reasons are:on the one hand, the thrilling plot of the film,

depicting the first of the greatest disasters of the 20th century, and, on

the other hand, new technologies of film making, used by James Cameron, the

producer. Everybody wanted to see if the film was really worth eleven

СOscarТ awards.

СTitanicТ is the latest screen version of the tragedy happened on

April 14-15, 1912 during the maiden voyage of the British luxury passenger

liner. The vessel sank with a loss of about 1,500 lives:men, women,

children. Their voyage on board the dream ship ended in a nightmare. It

revealted all human vices: arrogance, self-satisfaction, greed, selfishness

and self-confidence. But at the same time this tragedy showed the best

traits of humancharacter: the sense of duty and responsibility, self-

sacrifice and short but immortial love. The love-story about Jack and Rose,

a young poor artist and a 17-year old girl from the upper society, arouses

uor sympathy and admiration. Paired with the main story-line, it adds much

to the impression of the film. СTitanicТ made the leading actors Leonardo

Di Caprio and Kate Winslent international celebrities. The music of James

Horner created a special atmosphere in the film and has become popular with

the public.

The film is interesting not only from the artistic point of view, but

from the technical ones as well. Both the ship and the ocean are virtual,

created by computers. Besides, we can see unique pictures of СThe TitanicТ

buried in the depth of the ocean. Its wreck was found lying in two pieces

on the ocean floor at the depth of about 4,000 ..metres. The pictures were

taken with the help of the Russian ocean-explores and shown to the whole

world.

By the way, the film was directed by James Cameron, famous for creating

very expensive films with new special effects, which were the biggest box-

office success. СTitanicТ is not an exception. Critics say the film has

opened a new era in film production. I think they are right.

Literature.

1. In The USA. Martha Bordman

2. Introducing The USA. Milode Broukol, Peter Murphy.

3. ChildrenТs Britannica. Volume 7.

4. јнглийский €ык. Ќ.√. Ѕрюсов, Ќ. ј. Ћебедеваю

5. —Ўј и јмериканцы. √. ¬. Ќестерчук, ¬. ћ. »ванова.

6. »ностранные €зыки в школе є3.

7. »ностранные €зыки в школе є6.

8. јнглийский €зык. ”стные темы. ј. —. —ушкевич, ћ. ј. ћаглыш.

Vocabularly.

Mothion picture industry - киноиндустри€

Release - выход на экран

Nervous breakdown - нервное расстройство

Mercilessly - безжалостно

To keep oneТs grip - продолжать овладевать умами

To hit the nail on the head - попасть пр€мо в точку

Skit - пароди€

Antics - ужимки, шутки

Unheard-of - неслыханный

Reentry - возвращение

Flock - стекатьс€ толпами

Plot - сюжет

Depict - изображать

Screen version - экранизаци€

Shooting - (кино) съемка

Nightmare - кошмар

Reveal - показывать, обнаруживать

Vice - порок, зло, недостаток

Arrogance - высокомерие, надменость

Trait of character - черта характера

Immortial - бессмертный, вечный

Wreck - остов разбитого судна

Direct - ставить (фильм)

Essential - необходимый

Indispensable - незаменимый

Trade skills - профессиональные

Aim - стремитьс€

Be at oneТs disposal - быть в чьем-то распор€жении

Facilities - возможности, удобства

Inspiration - вдохновение

Enrich - обогощать

Genre - жанр

Aspiration - стремление, желание

Pricless - бесценный

Spitting image - точна€ копи€

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