Рефераты. Drug abuse: Tendencies and ways to overcome it

of anti-narcotics activities in such large-scale operations as Poppy and

Doping, in check-ups and research;

control surveys prepared by the narcology service.

Organizational support for these guidelines could be achieved through:

the establishment of a strict procedure for and the terms of turning

in, and registration of documents, supply of dependable information on the

actual situation with drugs and their sales and use for both medical and

non-medical purposes, on the individuals perpetrating misuse, supply of

other data essential for making specific decisions;

cooperation with other departments in holding joint selective research

and express-tests to obtain reliable information on the actual levels of

drug abuse, the damage it inflicts, the effects of treatment and other

types of aid to the addicts;

scheduled and unscheduled departmental and/or inter-departmental

inspections of how control over drugs is maintained, and how the rules of

their use and storage are observed;

analysis and broad publicity of the achievements of medical staffs who

have a record of positive results in combating narcotics, as well as

provision of incentives.

The scope of health institutions' duties also embraces revealing and

timely informing the relevant departments and the public at large on

dangerous tendencies in drug abuse, new varieties of stupefying substances,

the techniques of their manufacture and the means of use. The public health

system develops the adequate methods of prevention, treatment, and


Par. 3. Enforcement of Legal Measures of Narcotics Counteraction

The organization of legal enforcement of anti-narcotics measures falls

into three groups:

1) application of legal administrative and criminal legal norms

regulating the prevention and suppression of narcotics; 2) government legal

measures to set and refine law enforcement and other agencies combating

narcotics; 3) international anti-narcotics measures.

Group One includes compulsory treatment of drug addicts and measures

against drug-related crimes. Compulsory treatment of drug addicts is a law-

enforcement measure aimed at cutting down the non-medical use of narcotic

substances. It can be administered by the court to an addict who evades

voluntary treatment or who continues misusing drugs after a course of

treatment. If an addict commits a crime, the court metes out punishment in

combination with compulsory treatment.

Compulsory treatment of Drug Addicts:

Compulsory treatment is prescribed to all categories of abusers at medical

institutions with a specialized treatment procedure in the course of work

therapy. If criminal punishment is imposed, the treatment is executed at

the penitentiary during the term of imprisonment.

Placement of drug addicts to mandatory treatment centers is in the

domain of responsibilities of police departments. This activity goes hand

in hand with the following organizational measures:

identification of individuals perpetrating drugs abuse;

administering a medical examination, and a compulsory visit to a

medical institution in case of a refusal to undergo the procedure


compulsory hospitalization for complete check-up upon conclusion of a

narcologist (psychiatrist specializing in addictive conditions -

translator's note). Notification is given to the prosecutor's office and,

if an underage addict is hospitalized, to his or her parents.

timely and renewable registration of drug addicts at the drug-patient

monitoring clinics, and prophylactic registration of the individuals whose

misuse of drugs has not yet acquired the form of an illness;

supervision over the daily way of life of the registered patients and

checking their attempts to skip compulsory treatment, imposition of other

measures of educational, medical and legal influence;

issuance of documents for placing the addicts who avoid mandatory

treatment to rehabilitation and work-therapy clinics and specialized drug-

abuse Medicare centers; filing documents on treatment of evaders with the


escorting of addicts to the places of mandatory treatment, registration

of individuals who were formerly sentenced for drug-related crimes or fell

under administrative liability for misuse of drugs;

individual prophylactic measures against addicts to whom corrective

labor has been meted out without a term of imprisonment, or whose sentences

have been suspended or deferred;

treatment of drug addicts at corrective labor institutions

simultaneously with serving a term, supervision over inmates' treatment and


Organizational Law Enforcement Measures against Drug-related Crimes:

Other organizational law enforcement measures against narcotics-related

crimes are: locating the illegal plantations of narcotic-bearing crops and

identifying their growers, eradicating such plantations, securing

prohibitions to grow narcotic substance containing crops, making special

maps upon the inspections of gardens, private plots of land and wastelands,

cooperating with agriculture experts, army units and other departments

concerned, carrying out special task operations and disseminating

information on drugs.

It is of paramount importance to reorganize the system of guarding

government-controlled plantations of hemp and the like crops or create such

a system in the places where it is absent. This measure is closely linked

to the development of advanced methods of crop guarding, especially, in

harvesting seasons. Work by shifts and material incentives may prove

effective. Good results can also be obtained through the improvement of

technical and chemical means of protection.

To limit the access of the public at large to the areas of government-

sponsored drug- bearing crop plantations, it would stand to reason to

establish special passport and traffic control in such areas.

Organization of Measures to Suppress Drug-dealing:

The measures to suppress drug dealing are the most important issue at

present. Manufacture and trade in narcotics has become a branch of the

shadow economy. It is gaining momentum, creating production facilities and

channels of distribution. In a large number of cases the understaffed law

enforcement departments are unable to rebuff the onslaught of drug

manufacturers and offer sound alternatives to all aspects of drug abuse.

The illegal production of drugs that spill over the state borders and

continents is at the top of the world community's agenda. Particular

significance is attached to the clandestine drug laboratories.

In the wake of it, it is exigent to set up specialized police

departments, which will concentrate the officers of high professional

expertise, and to provide them with the necessary material and technical


Foreign experts believe tangible results in eradicating clandestine

laboratories can be achieved if police operations to uncover the channels

by which the raw materials arrive and the end product is dispatched are

synchronized with the efforts to block access to chemical substances and

equipment the manufacture of drugs requires. This, however, is not easy as

some drug synthesis components such as acetic anhydride, ether, benzene,

acetone are extensively used in the industrial sector. Their industrial

consumption is not controlled in practical terms since, in most countries,

legislation does not regulate the production, storage and use of these


Experts in Germany propose in this connection that the laws against

drugs should extend to cover these chemicals too. But the output and

industrial use of the above substances is so massive that the attempts to

take them under control within the boundaries of a single country have

yielded no results while entailing substantial expenditure on organizing

the control service.

Another measure suggested is marking the packing of chemical substances

with special marks that would help the police identify the country of

origin and the manufacturer. Such a step, however, is unproductive as in

most cases the police does not get a hold of packing of the chemicals which

had already been used.

Experts consider as more promising the special laboratory tests of the

confiscated narcotic substances and chemicals used in the manufacture of

drugs. The tests can be more helpful in identifying the country of origin,

elucidating specific features of the technological process and other

fundamental properties of the chemicals.

For instance, specialists of the German institute of criminology have

designed on the basis of the American and Swedish experience methods of

identifying the places of origin of heroin through chromatographic testing.

Experts believe the most effective way to control the proliferation of

the substances used in drug manufacturing could be the marking of such

substances with dyes or radiation. The weak point of the method is a

possible impact the marking may have on the qualities of the chemicals and

the end products. Besides, it would contradict the legislation of many

countries and some international agreements. That is why the researchers of

anti-narcotic methods tend to pin hopes on the method of a different nature

- self-control. It encompasses a set of police-proposed measures that are

effectuated by the services directly involved in actions against illegal

manufacturing, trafficking and trade in drugs, as well as by all companies

and individuals who have a connection with the manufacturing, sales and use

of narcotics and auxiliary chemicals. According to this concept, the

producers, suppliers and consumers of chemicals report to the police all

suspicious purchases. The police, in its turn, work out detailed

recommendation and criteria for such cases. Examples of these criteria are

above-the- statistic-average size of a purchased batch of chemicals, a

request from a new client, etc. Such kind of reporting gives the police

more opportunities to locate illegal laboratories, channels of raw

materials supplies and dispatch of the end product.

An imperative condition for putting in effect practical anti-narcotics

measures is stringent control over the narcotic raw materials and their

storage and limitations on trade in them.

It is important to note those drug-dealing affects the legitimate

turnover of narcotic substances. Violations of the rules of their storage,

manufacturing, and accounting continue increasing. There are

misappropriations and other offenses, including attacks on warehouses of

narcotic preparations in health centers, drug stores, etc. Executives do

not take adequate measures to safeguard narcotic substances and sometime

become accomplices in crimes. A possible explanation for this state of

affairs is the breach of the rules outlined above.

It is important to reveal violations of the effective rules of

manufacturing, storage, accounting, and sales of narcotic preparations,

invoking criminal liability when necessary. This necessitates joint steps

by the anti-drug units, licensing system of the internal affairs ministry,

fire detachments and units of extra-departmental guards.

The perpetrators of drug-related crimes' utmost secrecy calls for the

improvement in the procedures of investigation in strict compliance with

the criminal law procedures.

Crime Investigation Organizational Measures:

An important element in this process is the interaction between

detectives and investigators. The best and well-tested form of this

interaction is the setting-up of temporary or, as need be, permanently

functioning inquiry/investigation groups. These groups focus the efforts of

all branches of the police on drug-related crimes. The main directions of

activities (with due regard to the limits of professional competence of

each member of the group) are:

a) gathering and systematic analysis of all the incoming and requested

information on drug-related crimes and malefactors;

b) identification of criminal groupings and measures toward halting

their activities;

c) police actions to prevent and halt misappropriations of drugs and

other offenses in medicare institutions and other organizations;

d) police actions taken simultaneously with the investigation as

envisaged by the criminal law court procedure;

e) quality emergency investigation, completeness, objectivity and

timeliness of inquiry and investigation;

f) tactical planning and expedient conduct of search and technical

operations; professional conduct of operations; employment of investigation

and other technologies to supply the investigators with testimonies and eye-

witness accounts of the offenders' guilt;

g) professional analysis of the ways of using the results of search and

technical operations in investigation procedures.

Par. 4. Other Organizational Measures to Combat Narcotics

Narcotics can be overcome only if approaches to anti-narcotics activity

are fundamentally revised, its concrete trends are mapped out and the

control over the end results achieved by each ministry and department,

responsible for curbing this social evil.

Up-to-date scales and forms of narcotics proliferation show that the

measures, applied within the framework of established structures, are not

particularly successful. There is no proper interaction between the

ministries and the departments, called upon to handle these matters; work

is carried out far too often formally without essential drive, consistence,

and organization; the system of preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative

help remains inadequate; and anti-narcotic campaign is ineffective.

For this reason, organizational medical and law enforcement steps can

and must be backed by measures to resist drug abuse in all spheres and at

all levels of state power to avoid their imbalance and flaws in the all-out

anti-narcotics crusade.

The practical experience of daily anti-narcotics activity calls for a

significant impact from the top government agencies.

It is at this level that measures should be adopted for creating and

implementing a single national strategy against narcotics. For this end, a

single permanent executive body, empowered to control narcotics and capable

of coordinating comprehensive actions daily against drug addiction and drug-

related crimes must be created. The formation of such a body, representing

all the ministries and departments concerned, will make it possible to

organize a prompt and permanent government action against narcotics,

coordinate efforts of government agencies, and other organizations, as well

as individuals, and maintain contact with international organizations.

Lawmaking measures:

It is important to revitalize government-sponsored efforts toward

hammering out a single anti-narcotics legislation, matching international

standards, including 1) a law on the `control over the legal distribution

of narcotics, strong substances, precursors, and 2) on the responsibility

for such offences as: drugs extortion; illegal actions with government-

owned chemicals and special equipment and their use to make drugs; 3)

organizational forms of perpetrating drug-related crimes; 4) various

commercial and financial operations on money laundering.

Due to the latter, it is necessary to give law enforcement agencies

more authority to get from banks and other institutions and organizations

necessary data on accounts and other financial transactions of persons,

suspected of unlawful actions with narcotics.

Besides, it appears reasonable to amend the current legislation by

expanding authority and creating appropriate conditions for law-enforcement

agencies (police) to a) conduct searches of luggage, including carry-on

luggage, of passengers at all kinds of transport facilities, b) check

controlled shipments and cargoes, c) check state purchases of drugs, d)

conduct medical examinations of citizens, e) set a more flexible procedure

of placing drug addicts for medical treatment, f) a more flexible system of

administrative detaining and arresting of citizens, and g) to practice more

extensively the protocol form of pre-trial materials preparation.

Organizational Measures at Government Level:

It would be expedient to carry out a number of organizational anti-

narcotics measures at government level. They include:

- creating a stable system of information for regional law-enforcement

agencies about treaties, agreements, and protocols, concluded and signed by

countries, governments, and departments, about procedures and requirements

of signing such documents, about Interpol National Central Bank's

opportunities to combat specific types of crimes, and about requests'

formulation requirements;

- putting the NCB on round-the-clock duty to meet local requests;

- speeding up the creation of effective border customs control and

adopting measures against the use of a country as a transit point to ship

drugs to other regions;

- toughening control over the production and supplies of drug-bearing

substances in chemical pharmacology and other areas, where they are used

for lawful purposes.

A positive solution should be found to the issue of opening more

medical centers, improving anti-drug addiction therapy, and manufacturing

and acquiring more effective medicines, which involves much government

spending and a search for sources of funding. Simultaneously, special

government-financed short and long term comprehensive medical programs

should be worked out and put into effect to block the consumption and sale

of drugs; really re-socialize drug addicts; stop AIDS from spreading; spare

no effort toward revitalizing non-governmental organizations' activity,

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