Рефераты. Drug abuse: Tendencies and ways to overcome it

For example, a comprehensive inter-disciplinary action program to prevent

the spread of drug addiction submitted for discussion at the international

antidrug conference in Vienna in July 1987 contained more than 400 articles

and recommendations to governments and organizations as to how this

negative phenomenon should be overcome.

The UN international program for combating drugs for the years 1994 and

1995, 1995 and 1996 comprises 298 projects featuring various aspects,

directions and measures for checking the spread of drugs. 216 out of them

were carried through in 1994 and 1995 and the implementation of the

remaining 82 projects is underway. The total dollar amount of resources

mobilized for the fulfillment of these projects is estimated at US$

484,397,800. The sum was allocated by the UN International Antidrug

Program's Fund.

The Concept of the Russian Federation government's policy on drug

control, endorsed by decision No 5494 of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian

Federation on July 22nd 1993, incorporates quite a few antidrug measures

from those developed by the world community and registered by international

conventions and in other documents. This Concept emphasizes the measures

that have been tested and are successfully utilized.

Since the system of measures against drug abuse is too complicated the

discussion of its contents is related, firstly, to the general

characterization of its components and, secondly, to the classification of

these measures in their relation to each other.

Basic Aspects of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:

The measures against drug abuse have some social, legal,

criminological, medical, biological, political, economic, ecological,

organizational and international aspects. Although these aspects have

different spheres of application, they still remain interrelated. For

example, measures for curing drug addicts have medical, social and legal

aspects to them; measures for combating drug-related crimes have legal,

criminological, social and other aspects; measures for combating money

laundering have legal, social, economic, international and other aspects

and so on. So, each particular aspect can be discussed only in abstract

terms. This approach to the definition and description of aspects makes it

possible to give a full characterization of the system of measures against

drug abuse.

Social Dimension:

The social dimension is the cornerstone of all other aspects. All the

antidrug measures are permeated with it. There is a correlation between the

social aspect and each of the other aspects. It is either a general element

in relation to something specific such as medical measures, or the whole of

something, which represents a part such as criminological measures. It can

also be a content when the other represents a form, as in legal measures.

In short, the social aspect can be regarded as a common for all antidrug

measures. Additionally there are legal measures for making those involved

in drug-related crimes answerable for their actions and for intensifying

the customs' control over the shipment of drugs across borders.

Legal Dimension:

The legal aspect of the measures under consideration can be seen as a

totality of legal norms including international conventions against drugs

and determining the degree of a judicial responsibility for them, mainly,

criminal and administrative; secondly, regulating various legal

relationships arising from drug use, thirdly, ensuring a compulsory

treatment for drug addicts who try to avoid it and, fourthly, referring to

these or other substances as narcotics.

Criminological Dimension:

The criminological aspect comprises measures aiming to overcome narco-

crime, as a totality of drug-related crimes. These measures aim to study,

analyze and sum up the structure and dynamics of these crimes and their

latency. In addition, they aim to establish the causal complex of the given

crime and determine the content, nature and direction of actions aimed at

removing or neutralizing the causes conducive to the commitment of drug-

related crimes. Thirdly, they aim to disclose and fix typical features,

traits and qualities of an individual guilty of committing this or that

crime. Lastly, they aim to develop methods for preventing drug-related


Medical Dimension:

The medical (biological) aspect involves the improvement of

narcological aid and methods for curing drug addicts, the need to increase

the level of professional medical training for those engaged in treating

addicts and persons taking drugs without a doctor's prescription and the

development of new medicines and medical equipment for treating addicts.

Political Dimension:

The political aspect involves combating narco-business, which tries to

undermine the foundations of state power, weaken the entire machinery of

state and diminish the nation's trust in the government.

Some juridical works make it a point that organized crime opposes legal

actions of top government bodies not only by committing crimes but also by

bending administration officials to the will of criminal associations so

that they could protect criminal activities.

The resistance of narco-business to government lawful actions can

result in attempts to undermine the foundations of state and in the re-

orientation and distortion of any country's policy. So, central to the

political aspect of measures against narco-business is blocking the

influence of drug dealers on the national policy by barring nomination of

corrupt officials to key posts in the government.

Economic Dimension:

There are two facets- retrospective and perspective of the economic

aspect of measures against drug abuse. The retrospective facet, on the one

hand, involves direct expenses of the state to combat narcotics, and, on

the other, the lost benefits to citizens as a result of the spread of drug


Direct expenses include sizeable resources taken out from the state

budget to set up and maintain various medical and educational centers for

handicapped children, including those who inherited health problems from

their parents suffering from drug addiction. In addition this includes

expenses to support internal affairs agencies, customs officers engaged in

combating the proliferation of drugs, production of special equipment for

identifying drugs, as well as production of medicines for drug users.

Finally, the direct expenses are used to promote international cooperation

in joint antidrug actions with the United Nations Organization, Interpol

and other international agencies and carry out research in the field of

medicine, psychiatry, psychology and law, and to conduct an antidrug


The cost to society is revealed in an increase in the number of

physically handicapped and mentally retarded people, victims of narcotics.

In the long run this leads to a curtailment of society's physical and

intellectual potential as a whole, such as lower standards in education and

labor productivity. This, in turn, causes a reduction in the amount of

material and other benefits produced by society and of resources for

various government-run programs. There is also an increase in the number of

cases of accidents in industry and, as a consequence the increasing failure

to meet the output targets.

It is therefore essential to develop economic levers to oppose narco-

business, including the money laundering. This has been poorly done so far,

as no economic measures for combating narcotics have been developed and

applied in practice. These tasks require an independent study by economists

and lawyers.

Ecological Dimension:

The ecological dimension of measures against drug abuse is linked to

the legal regulation that puts restrictions on the preservation and

dissemination of drug-bearing plants. This amounts to a ban on their

cultivation and destruction of the fields without any damage to the

environment. The cultivation of such plants is expected to be limited to

specially allotted areas where drug-bearing plants can be sown for medical

purposes only.

International Dimention:

The international dimention of measures against drug abuse is

manifested in various legislative, and law enforcement measures at the

international level.

In sum, this system of measures covers a totality of numerous, diverse,

complementary and carefully outlined programs that have social, legal,

criminological, medical, economic, ecological, organizational and

international dimensions.

Par. 2. Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse

The essence of the system of measures to overcome drug abuse can be

understood by their classification in view of the diversity of these

measures. By establishing their different categories and distributing them

into various groups, this classification would make it possible to give

each measure its own niche, to define its boundaries and its relationship

to other measures. This classification makes it possible to determine the

degree of each measure's significance and its priority in terms of its

practical implementation.

It is important to group them by contents, form, level, subject of

application, and type. As for legal measures, they should be grouped in

accordance with different branches of law.

The Content of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:

The measures to overcome drug abuse carried out by the UN Commission on

Drugs of the UN Economic and Social Council, by the UN International

Committee on Drug Control and by other international agencies can be

grouped into the following categories: analytical, organizational, training

and educational, research, technical, medical, economic, financial,

international law, preventive, monitoring, legislative, and criminal.

Analytical component is needed in order to be able to make use of a

complex system of collecting and assessing data about drug abuse, to

evaluate the extent of the illegal use of drugs in different countries

worldwide, and to make data available on the seizure of large quantities of

narcotics to interested parties.

Organizational component of measures is aimed at setting up

international agencies to control drugs and to combat drug trade; assisting

countries in developing national policies on such control; supporting

projects, promoting national law enforcement agencies; defining direction

of programs and ensuring the organizational backing of such programs;

estimating the amount of illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants in

areas difficult and dangerous to access. Governmental measures should

include adoption and fulfillment of national programs to overcome drug

abuse by forming special law-enforcement, medical and other institutions,

as well as special services and squads to combat drug trade; taking stock

of lands used to cultivate drug-bearing plants; arranging control over the

production, storage, consumption, an shipments of drugs, especially across

national borders, as well as over the actions for pharmaceutical and

medical centers.

The training and educational component includes educating specialists

in law-enforcement agencies, mass media, narcological centers, and social


The research component aims to define and analyze data on drug abuse,

to work out recommendations for overcoming it, to set up and run special

research labs, and to find new ways of ending drug addiction.

The technical component includes identifying drugs, designing equipment

for special labs, developing remote control devices to spot fields of drug-

bearing crops.

The medical component of measures is: to promote a system of

rehabilitative treatment for drug users; to choose appropriate curative

programs; and work on methods to reduce the spread of infectious diseases

among drug users.

The economic component consists chiefly in funding various programs and

projects, combating drug abuse, supporting programs reducing demand for

drugs and their supply, encouraging and supporting populations which had

switched to cultivating farm crops on territories where drug-bearing plants

had been grown previously.

The financial component involves measures against money laundering.

Financial operations by drug moguls aimed at making their earnings legal

are the most vulnerable part for the criminals. In view of this, the

Committee for Banking Rules and Banking Supervision issued a statement on

December 12th, 1988 that calls for preventing criminal uses of the banking

system for laundering cash obtained from drug trafficking. It requires that

the international banking community use extreme discretion while

identifying clients. The statement also calls for more cooperation with

judicial systems and police institutions in halting the legalization of

cash from drug trafficking. Many countries have accepted that the

principles contained in this statement are applicable to the operation of

their own financial systems. In keeping with a decision of the G Seven

countries and of the European Commission Chairman at the 15th economic

summit in Paris in July 1989, a special operational group on financial

issues was started. It produced 40 recommendations made public in February

1990. It also analyzed world financial flows, banking and financial systems

and methods for laundering cash. The group found some weak spots and

undertook a number of other steps. All the countries, who are members of

this group and (in keeping with its recommendations) some other countries

declared that they viewed participation in laundering cash as a criminal

act and started special services to investigate leads on shady deals

reported by subunits of the financial system. At the recommendation of the

special operational group on finances, the UN International Committee on

Drug Control called on all governments to pass and effectively use

appropriate legislative acts to stop money laundering, to confiscate the

property of drug dealers, and to consider a possibility of lifting the

burden of proving the legitimacy of supposed incomes or of other property

subject to confiscation under par. 7 of Article 5 of the 1988 Convention

even if this may require legal or constitutional amendments.

Among the international law components of measures are those calling

for reciprocal legal support of countries working to combat drug

trafficking. It is essential to make extradition easier, to strengthen

international cooperation against illegal drug trafficking, as well as to

promote the international system of control over medicinal drugs and


The preventive measures are comprised of destroying illegal plantations

of drug-bearing crops; preventing a transfer of drugs and of their

components from the legal sphere to the illegal one; curbing illegal drug

trafficking; reducing the demand for drugs; preventing the use of

narcotics, particularly, in places of employment, eliminating the addicts'

pads, illegal labs where narcotics are made and stores which sell them;

promoting social rehabilitation of drug addicts and encouraging education

campaigns against drugs.

The control component of measures envisages supervision over the

following areas: the growing of drug-bearing plants, to rule out a

"leakage" of the legitimately grown plants: illegal sowing and raising;

production of narcotics, their acquisition, storage, stocking and

dispensing; commercial trade turnover in special equipment used for

producing drugs, as well as in raw materials; semi-finished products,

chemicals and narcotic analogies; international parcel post deliveries as a

vehicle for sending narcotics; ships sailing on the high seas and planes

flying in international space; transit through customs' ports; approaches

to land, sea and air borders; and deliveries of drugs for treatments at


The most important law-making measure is that of bringing national

legislation in line with international conventions on narco-business.

The common criminal measures are those applied in every country, as

criminal responsibility for illegal drug trafficking, sowing and raising

drug-bearing plants as well as for other socially dangerous actions related

to drugs. These measures cover both punishments for the above-listed crimes

and also confiscation of tools and of income earned from the illegal drug


Other measures include improving judiciary and legal systems such as

law-enforcement bodies, courts of law, penitentiary and post penitentiary

programs, customs and education.

Forms of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:

The classification of measures to overcome drug abuse can be subdivided

into two groups: those having legal form and those that do not, i.e. those

which are regulated and unregulated by the law accordingly.

Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse Regulated by the Law:

The legal measures against drug abuse include compulsory educational;

compulsory medical; preventive- repressive; repressive; those ensuring

active participation of citizens in combating crimes, in preventing and

curbing them; as well as procedural and organizational managerial. The

compulsory medical, preventive repressive and repressive measures are those

aimed at suppressing drug abuse and the compulsory educational-at

preventing it.

Organizational managerial measures on the basis of administrative legal

norms, determine in general terms, the status of curative educational and

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.