–ефераты. Food






Food

Theme: УFoodФ

Student: Sophy (IX form)

Teacher: Smirnova T. V.

Kostanai, 2002

P L A N:

1. Food celebrates life.

2. Food nourishes language.

3. Food for different cultures:

a. From land and sea

b. From high in the mountains

c. Meals in Britain

d. American food and drink

e. Kazakh traditional dishes

4. Food is symbolic.

5. Food as a fad or cult.

6. Plan a healthful diet.

7. Food is the staff of life.

УEvery man is the builder of a temple called his body (1817-1862) Ф

Thoreau, Henry Davia

English will have become an important tool for communication and

discovery rather than just another class to attend. And we would like to

look at the all-important topic, Food.

Food Celebrates Life.[1]

Have you ever noticed how much of our life is centered on food? Look at

all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergers consummated over a meal:

power breakfast, power lunch, dinners, banquets, receptions, and those

endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where food is all-important:

weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national holidays, etc. Food is

the great icebreaker when people meet for pleasure or business. Food is at

the center of many of our important activities.

Food Nourishes Language.[2]

Because of this importance, much of our language (regardless of the

language) contains references to food. These references conjure up images

worth a thousand words each. The idiom page contains several references to

food and shows how these are used in a non-food-related discussion. Think

about the idioms and expressions in your native language related to food

and how and when you use them. Do you use food expressions to describe

someoneТs physical characteristics (e.g., HeТs as skinny as a string bean;

his belly shakes like a bowl full of jelly.); or, to describe someoneТs

personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am puff; sheТs as sweet as sugar.) or, to

describe a situation or activity (e.g., Something is fishy here; That

crossword puzzle is a piece of cake.). How we use food expressions depends

on how we perceive the food, or the culture associated with the food.

Food For Different Cultures.[3]

Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your

family eat

everyday and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat? In

the movie Indiana Jones and Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which

the two characters are offered meals from a different culture. One meal,

meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was a lavish

banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live snakes,

eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat such

things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats, dog meat, horsemeat, bats,

animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.

Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are related

to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live near

water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and crustaceans.

People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier, fatty foods.

However, with the development of a global economy, food boundaries and

differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continent

expect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all over the world.

Mexico: Beans and rice[4]

Corn tortillas (2 servings)

Black beans (2 servings)

Rice (2 servings)

Salsa

Morocco: Couscous4

Couscous (wheat pasta)

Carrots

Zucchini

Peppers

Chickpeas

Lamb

India: Sag paneer4

Indian cheese (2 servings)

Spinach

Peppers

Oil

Onion

Rice (2 servings)

Chapati (wheat bread)

Italy: Spaghetti[5]

Spaghetti (2 servings)

Tomato sauce (2 servings)

Parmesan cheese

Chicken breasts, baked

Japan: Tempura5

Shrimp

Eggplant

Peppers

Mushrooms

Flour

Oil

Egg white

Rice (2 servings)

USA: Barbecue chicken and potato salad5

Chicken breast, barbecue

Potatoes

Mayonnaise

Onion

Peppers

Corn (1 ear)

What do people eat?

Many factors determine the foods that people eat. Geography and climate,

tradition and history: They all go into our meals. In European country of

Spain and the Asian country of Nepal, different cultures and customs affect

what people eat.

From Land and Sea.[6]

Spain occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula, on the western edge of

Europe. It is nearly surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean

Sea.

SpainТs dry climate and poor soil make farming difficult. Extensive

irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberries and rice in dry areas.

Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains, and olives and

grapes grow in the river valleys.

The grasslands of the large dry central plateau are used for grazing

sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this region eat roasted and boiled

meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausage called chorizo. And

people all over the country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic and the

Mediterranean.

One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels, lobster, or

chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice. Peasants were

the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But this dish

and others also reflect SpainТs history of traders, conquerors, and

explorers who brought a variety of food by land and by sea.

Phoenicians from the Middle East introduced grapes to Spain in about

1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans brought olives from what is now

Italy. In the 8th century A.D., Moors (Muslim Arabs and Berbers from

Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran, or saffron Ц the spice

that colors rice yellow. And in the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s, Spanish

explorers and traders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East

Indies: and peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas.

From High in the Mountains.[7]

Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain

range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones Ц lowlands;

hills, mountains, and valleys; and the Great Himalayan Range Ц with

subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in vegetation

and animal life.

Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow fruits, fruits, and other

crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are the warmest. Rice and corn

grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields in the cooler hill regions. And

potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops at higher elevations,

where temperatures are the coolest.

The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and yaks for dairy products. Meat is

eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rules affect which meats

people in Nepal eat: Hindus, who make up almost 90 percent of the

population, do not eat beef, and Muslims do not eat pork. The Buddhist

religion prohibits the killing of any animals but allows the eating of

meat, so Buddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.

A typical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with lentil

gravy) or chapati (a flatbread), steamed vegetables, and achaar (a paste of

spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of the Nepalese people live in

rural areas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators or for cooking,

so they rely on dried foods such as grains, lentils, and beans.

People carry traditions and foods with them when they move from one

place to another. You might recognize examples when you look at your

classmatesТ special family foods or at specialty restaurants in your

community.

Meals in Great Britain.[8]

The two features of life in England that possibly give visitors their

worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking.

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal Ц sausages, bacon,

eggs, tomatoes, and mushrooms. People who do have a full breakfast say

that it is

quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham once gave the following advice:

УIf you want to eat well in England, eat three breakfasts daily.Ф But

nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal. Many people just

have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey.

Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam

is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which

people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee,

which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this

coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quite meal. In cities there are lot of

sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want

Ц brown, white, or a roll Ц and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to

go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food both hot and cold.

School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack

from home Ц a sandwich, a drink, some fruit and perhaps some crisps.

British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.

УTeaФ means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have

afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream

teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They

usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole

family eats together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat,

either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy.

Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian,

French, Chinese, and Indian. The British have in fact always imported food

from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major

influence on British cooking. Another important influence on British

cooking was of course

the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green grass,

and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of

meat, fruit and vegetables, which donТt need fancy sauces or complicated

recipes to disguise their taste. People often get take-away meals Ц you buy

the food at the restaurant and than bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain

is quite international!

British Cuisine.[9]

Some people criticize English food. They say itТs unimaginable, boring,

tasteless, itТs chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables.

The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British

havenТt had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can

compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter?

Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or

two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will

probably say УFish and chipsФ then stop. It is disappointing, but true

that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because

the food doesnТt lend itself to such preparations. English cooking is found

at home so it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with a

reasonable prices.

In most cities in Britain youТll find Indian, Chinese, French and

Italian restaurants. in London youТll also find Indonesian, Mexican, GreekЕ

Cynics will say that this is because English have no УcuisineФ themselves,

but this is not quite the true.

English breakfast.[10]

All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink

the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the

other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same

things to eat and drink Ц Tea or Coffee, Bread and butter, Fruit.

Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat at

breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for

breakfast in hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat meat

for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a hot

country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for tea

makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it

The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, bread and Butter, fruit. That is

the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

How tea was first drunk in Britain.11

By the time tea was first introduced into this country (1660), coffee

had already been drunk for several years.

By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for all types and

classes of people Ц even though a pound of tea cost a skilled worker

perhaps a third of his weekly wage!

Tea ware.

Early tea cups had no handles, because they were originally imported

from China. Chinese cups didnТt (and still donТt) have handles.

As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand for more and more

tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth of the English pottery and

porcelain industry, which not long after became world famous for its

products.

The tea break.

Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer a proper, formal, Ђsocialї occasion.

We don't dress up to Уgo out to teaФ anymore. But one tea ceremony is still

very important in Britain Ц the Tea Break! Millions of people in factories

and offices look forward to their tea breaks in the morning and afternoon

Things to do.

1) Make a display of as many pictures, cut from magazines. As you can

showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.

2) Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.

American food and drink.[11]

The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on

cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American

popular view that the British live on tea and fishТnТchips, the Germans

only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and

garlic.

This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad as

УAmerican foodФ is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American beef,

for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows that are

raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef is more

tender and tasted better than what is usually offered as an УAmerican

steakФ in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato that comes hot

and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the famous Idaho

potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climate and

soil in Idaho.

Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many of

the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue sauce from

the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas have a

competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes are kept

secret).

America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is

that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well supplied

with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at relatively low

prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is probably the most

УtypicalФ American food; it has always been more available. But good

Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do hickory-smoked or sugar-

cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs or

clams.

In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and vegetable

growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, melons,

cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce, avocados, and cranberries

do not have to be imported. This is one reason why fruit dishes

and salads are so

common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby

and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were farmers.

They also help to keep fresh food on the table.

The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought

with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their countries

and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply amazing. Whether

Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French, German, Greek,

Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican, Vietnamese or

what have you, these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.A.

There seem to be four trends in America at present which are connected

with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable increase in the

number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer specialty foods. These

include those that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes,

those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are

buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more

regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One reason is that they are not

many American women do not feel that their lives are best spent in the

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