. Food

kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and also enjoy a good

meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for

both men and women. For some two decades now, these have been popular

television series on all types and styles of cooking, and the increasing

popularity can easily be seen in the number of best-selling specialty

cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often exotic cooking

devices and spices.

A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in

general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit and

vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and sweet

foods. Finally, there is the international trend to fast food chains

which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and

sandwiches, seafoods and

various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent this

trend and while, as many be expected, restaurants also dislike it, many

young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to buy and

eat fast foods.

Hot Dogs.[12]

Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in

1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it

resembled a dachshunds body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which he

captioned Hot dog.

Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was

brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter

Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in New

York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls first for a dime apiece,

later, a nickel.

The frank appealed to busy Americans, who as an early 19th century

comment put it tend to live by the maxim of gobble, gulp and go.

Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.


Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in

1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s, when

the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at a very

low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly caught on as

family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and burger chains offer

Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.

The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. A Tartar

dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice was brought

from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. The lightly broiled German

chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was

introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the



It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who introduced

the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it was a festive

food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory, a

lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her fried

cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch before they

were cooked.

During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the troops,

doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and doughnuts

become a national institution. Stores sell them plain, sugared, frosted,

honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie[13]

At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust, apple

pie has long been favorite on American tables.

Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early

colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were

planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to Rhode

Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still

considered one of Americas finest apple pies.

As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every meal.

Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial breakfast

dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale College in

New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.

Americas love affair with apple pie has remained constant. Todays

housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the

pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variation on the good

old original are available, but the classical apple pie, irresistible when

topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla ice cream,

is still Americas favorite.

Potato chips.13

George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at Moons Lake House

in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century, was irked

when a

finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes,

complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the potatoes

into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a dishful of

crisp Saratoga chips presented to the guest, who was delighted with the

new treat.

Potato chips became the specialty of Moons Lake House and, later,

Americas crunchiest between-meal snack.


Americas best known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta

pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from

extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the Pemberton

Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was sold in a

local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.

Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G.

Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula then as now a carefully guarded

secret and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.

Advertisement stressing the words delicious and refreshing and carry

coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A system

of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the flared

bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt, was

designed in 1916.

In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by

Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly

expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day

were sold in country all over the world.

Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is

still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakh traditional dishes.15

The mode of life of people, traditional craft, interrelations. Customs

and traditions are, perhaps, well comprehended through traditional

dishes. The

methods of cooking, which the Kazakh people used were closely linked with

the culture and mode of life. The table manners of nomads, filled with so

many customs, rituals, special behavior find its place in our time. The

strict nomadic life laws have created moral and ethic norm. The whole clan

and tribe shared the joys and sorrows of life, any unexpected traveler was

an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew, that he was a welcome guest

and had a right to his share. This steppe tradition was strictly observed

and is still observed today by the host. Some time later this violation

merited a sort of punishment. That explains why every host regarded the

ritual of hospitality as sacred rule and welcomed guests warmly and with

all attention and kindly saw them off with good wishes.

The main traditional dish of Kazakh is besbarmak. It is mostly served

for the guests and eaten by hands (bes barmak means five finger).

Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts of smoked horse meat

and horse delicacies like kazy and shyzhyk. The meat is boiled and

separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat are put on the paste

and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk. As the custom demands

the host serves the meal in special crockey tabak. The bas-tabak, which

is placed before the most honourable guests is used to serve the mutton

head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy and other fatty parts. The esteemed

guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part from the head and offers

them to the other guests at the table. The secret of distribution of parts

of the meat from the head lies in traditional wishes. When given the

palate, it expresses the wish be wise and eloquent, the larynx a gift

to sing, skin of forehead be the first among equals. Meanwhile one or

two dzhigits (young man), sitting next to the esteemed guest start cutting

the boiled parts of meat to pieces and the dish is again spiced with

tuzdyk. The guests are offered to help themselves to the dish. The youth

and children usually sit at sides of the table dastarkhan. They receive

meat directly

from the elders. The custom is called asatu and symbolized the desire of

the youth to experience the long and good life the elders have experienced.

When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fat content) have been eaten

and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostess on behalf of all the

guests and blesses the hosts of that house.

In our days the main features of this old ritual and table etiquette

exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes to their traditions.

Food is Symbolic.16

Throughout history, food has been used as a symbol of wealth or

gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In some cultures, eating

lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereas eating only

the basic foods is a of sign belonging to a more common class. In some

cultures, the offer of a glass of cool, clean water is the greatest

compliment or honor one can receive. In some cultures, whenever you receive

s guest, whether for business or pleasure, you must offer them something to

eat or drink: the more lavish the offering signifies the amount of respect

or honor you give that person. Diet is not a consideration.

For centuries, food has been a key element in religious rituals. Food

was used as offering to the gods and their high priests and priestesses.

Food has been considered a form of tithing to a church or religious sect.

Certain foods such as lamp, bread, and bitter herbs are religious symbols

in some ceremonies.

The sharing of food demonstrates acceptance, friendship, family, and

love. To be invited to break bread with a family, in many cultures shows

respect and is a sign of friendship and acceptance. Literature is full of

examples of lovers using food to show their devotion and respect foe each

other: one of the most famous being the line from the Rubaiyal of Omar

Khayyam, A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread and Thou in the West,

chocolate and sweets have long been a symbolic exchange of affection

between lovers. So, why do we eat the things we do? First, lets

established that not everything we like to meat is all that good for us,

unfortunately. For example, there is much debate over the value of

chocolate yes, it does have some redeeming qualities aside from just

tasting wonderful.

Food as a Fad or Cult.17

Food has often found a niche for itself in popular culture. Eating or

entertaining with certain foods has often been a fad or cult. Whichever

group you associate with or aspire to be like will dictate which fad you

follow. For example, in the late 70s and 80s in the U.S., salads were the

in food for the yuppie crowd (the young, upwardly-mobile group). Salad

bars (restaurants where salad is the primary food) sprang up everywhere.

There were so many types of salads, garnishes, and salad dressings that

were invented, it was impossible to keep up with them all.

Of course many people ate salads because they were on diets. Thin was

in and so everyone who was in or aspiring to be in wanted to lose

weight. Actually, throughout most of the 80s and 90s there has been an

obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a politically correct

word. There are so many schemes and foods out in the stores for people to

use lose weight; there are even substances that promise if you take them

you can eat all you want and still lose weight.

Aside form diets and salads, there are the foods that people eat because

their favorite athlete, musician, or actor eats that brand or kind for

food. The cultural icons over the last several years have been exploited to

promote the sale of different foods or food substitutes. Whatever Michael

Jordan, Mel Gibson, or Oprah Winfrey drink and eat, the ardent fans,

wannabes and admirers worldwide try to eat and drink. People dont always

pay attention to how truly nutritious something is; if the in-crowed or the

cultural icon they aspire to be like eat it, they will get it. Pop culture

is a powerful force.

Food is the Staff of life.18

Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the right

kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your needs for

different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs the three

key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the necessary building

blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and protein. Unfortunately,

in our world today, not every one has access to all of these all the time.

World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressed by all nations.

The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and

stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is key

to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you eat


day? Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the right food

everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes our spirits,

our creativity and thinking, and our language and interaction with other


What Counts as a serving?19

The amount of food that counts as a serving is listed. If you eat a large

portion, count it as more than one serving. For example, cup of cooked

pasta counts as one serving in the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group. If

you eat 1 cup of pasta that would be 2 servings. If you eat less than

cup, count it as part of a serving.

For mixed foods, do the best you can to decide the food groups and to

estimate the servings of the main ingredients. Pizza would count in the

Bread Group (crust), the Milk Group (cheese), and the Vegetable Group

(tomato). Beef stew would count in the Meat Group and Vegetable Group.

|Bread, Cereal, | | |Natural cheddar |1 oz |

|Rice, and Pasta | | |cheese | |

|Group | | |Processed cheese|2 oz |

|Bread |1 slice |1 | |1 oz |

|Hamburger roll, |1 |2 |Mozzarella, part| |

|bagel, English | | |skim | cup |

|muffin | | |Ricotta, part | cup |

|Tortilla |1 |1 |skim | |

|Rice, pasta, | cup |1 |Cottage cheese, | cup |

|cooked |3-4 |1 |4 % fat | cup |

|Pain crackers, |1oz |1 |Ice cream | cup |

|small |2 |2 |Ice milk | |

|Breakfast cereal| | |Frozen yogurt | |

| |1 large(2oz)|2 |Meat, Poultry, | |

|Pancakes, 4-in | |2 |Fish, Dry Beans,| |

|diameter |1medium |2 |Eggs, and Nuts |3 oz |

|Croissant |(2oz) |1 |Group | |

|Doughnut |1medium |1 |Lean meat, |3 oz |

|Danish |(2oz) |2 |poultry, fish, | |

|Cake, Frosted |1 average | |cooked |3 oz |

|Cookies |slice |1 |Ground beef, |2 slices (1 oz)|

|Pie, fruit, |2 medium |1 |cooked | |

|2-crust |1 average | |Chicken, with |1 (1 oz) |

|Vegetable Group |slice |1 |skin | |

|Vegetables, | |1 |Bologna |2 Tbsp (1 oz) |

|cooked |2 medium | |Dry beans and |1/3 cup (1 oz) |

|Vegetables, | cup |1 |peas, cooked | |

|leafy, raw | |1 |Peanut butter | |

|Vegetables, |1cup |1 |Nuts |1 tsp |

|nonleafy raw, | cup | |Fats, oils, and |1 Tbsp |

|chopped | |1 |Sweets |1 Tbsp |

|Potatoes, | cup | |Butter, |1 Tbsp |

|scalloped | cup |1 |margarine | |

|Potato salad |10 |1 |Mayonnaise |2 Tbsp |

|French fries | | |Salad dressing |1 tsp |

|Fruit Group |1 medium |1 |Reduced calorie |12 fl oz |

|Whole fruit: | | |salad dressing |12 fl oz |

|apple, orange. | cup | |Sour cream |1 tsp |

|Banana | cup |1 |Sugar, jam, | cup |

|Fruit, raw or | |1 |jelly |1 tsp |

|canned | whole |1 |Cola |1 tsp |

|Fruit juice, | |1 |Fruit drink, ade| |

|unsweetened | | | | |

|Avocado |1 cup |1 |Chocolate bar | |

|Milk, yogurt, |1 cup | |Sherbet | |

|and cheese Group|1 cup |1 |Fruit sorbet | |

| |1 cup | |Gelatin dessert | |

|Skim milk | | | | |

|Lowfat milk 2 % |8 oz | | | |

|Whole milk | | | | |

|Chocolate milk, |8oz | | | |

| | | | | |

|2 % | | | | |

|Lowfat yogurt, | | | | |

|plain | | | | |

|Lowfat yogurt, | | | | |

|fruit | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | |1/3 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | |1 |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

| | | | | |

Plan a healthy Diet

Using the food Guide Pyramid and What Counts as a Serving? plan a full

days diet that contains the recommended number of servings for each food

group. Be sure that the meals you create are ones you would actually eat.

Food Items How Number of Total


Much servings of serving

|Bread Group | | | | |

|Vegetable Group | | | | |

|Fruit Group | | | | |

|Milk Group | | | | |

|Meat Group | | | | |

|Fats, Oils, and | | | | |

|Sweets | | | | |

Food Guide Pyramid.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid is an outline for

making daily food choices for a healthful diet. Researchers now know that

eating a healthful diet reduces the risk of heart disease, high blood

pressure, stroke, certain cancers, and the most common type of diabetes.

The pyramid shape is related to the recommended daily amounts of food

from each of five major groups and from a sixth grouping of extras. Most

people should eat more servings of foods from groups closer to the base and

fewer servings of food from groups closer to the trip.

For good health you need foods from the five major food groups shown in

the Food Guide Pyramid. At the base of the Pyramid is the Bread Group,

which includes bread, cereal, rice, and paste. On the next level are the

Vegetable Group including yellow, root, and green leafy vegetables and

the Fruit Group. On the third level are the Milk Group which includes

milk, yogurt, and cheese and the Meat Group, which includes meat,

poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. The sixth grouping Fats, Oils,

and Sweets is shown at the tip of the Pyramid; these extras are grouped

together because they each should be used sparingly.

The knowledge of this theme Food makes these practical and theoretical

valuable for those who wanted to grow thin or to grow fat.

Also material of this report is incased knowledge and enriched this

theme. It is the help for English teachers and students who want to know

more than they have in their books.


. The magazine Forum volume 36 number 4 Oct-Dec 1998

. The book Brush your English E.D. Mihailova and A.Y. Romanovich, Moscow.


. The book 1000 English topics V. Kaverina and V. Boiko, Moscow, 2000

. The book Happy English reader

. The book American Studies V.M. Pavlotskei, St. Peterburg, 1997

. The book The USA history and the present L. Khalilova, 1999

. The book Kazakh in brief G.H. Molkha, Astana

. The book English for students I.A. Klapalchenko, Mpscow, 1997



[1] From the magazine Forum.

[2] From the magazine Forum.

[3] From the magazine Forum.

[4] From the magazine Forum.

[5] From the magazine Forum.

[6] From the magazine Forum.

[7] From the magazine English.

[8] From the book Brush up your English E. D. Mihailova and A. Y.


[9] From the book 100 English topics Kaverina V. And Boiko V.

[10] From the site www. English for everyone.ru

11 From the book Happy English reader

12 From the book American Studies Pavlotskei V. M. , St. Petersburg,


[11] From the book The USA history and the present L. Khalilova

[12] From the book The USA history and the present L. Khalilova

14 From the book The USA history and the present L. Khalilova.

15 From the book Kazakhstan in brief G. H. Molkha, Astana, 2002.

16 From the magazine English.

17 From the magazine forum.

18 From the book English for students I. A. Klepalchenko.

19 From the magazine Forum

: 1, 2