Рефераты. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

tickle o’ em (Do-loc. l) (note the absence of -in(g)).

The confusion between of and on is frequent in dialects, but although

on may occur where of is expected, the reverse is impossible. The

occasional use of on instead of of is therefore unimportant. What really

matters is the occurrence of of, o’ or ov between a transitive verb and the

DO. The presence of the -in(g) ending should also attract our attention: it

occurs in all the examples except tickle o’ em, which is exceptional since,

when the SED informants used an infinitive in their answers, their syntax

was usually identical with that of Standard English, ie without of

occurring before the DO: glad to see you, (he wants to) hide it (Orton and


Following Jespersen, Lyons makes a distinction between real

transitives (/ hit you: action > goal) and verbs which are only

syntactically transitives (/ hear you: goal < action). It is a pity that

the way informants were asked questions for the SED (‘What do we do with

them? - Our eyes/ears’) does not enable us to treat the transitive verbs

see Orton and Wakelin and hear (Orton and Wakelin) other than as ODVs.

The use of of as an operator between a transitive verb and its DO was

strangely enough never described by Barnes, and is casually dismissed as an

‘otiose of’ by the authors of the SED, even though nothing can really be

‘otiose’ in any language system. Rogers points out that ‘Much more widely

found formerly, it is now confined to sentences where the pronouns en, it

and em are the objects.’ This is obvious in the SED materials, as,

incidentally, it is in these lines by Barnes:

To work all day a-meдken haя/Or pitchen o’t.

Nevertheless, even if his usage is in conformity with present syntax,

it is important to add that, when Barnes was alive, o/ov could precede any

DO (a-meдken ov haя would equally have been possible). What should also be

noted in his poetry is the extremely rare occurrence of o’/ov after a

transitive verb with no -en (= -ing) ending, which, as we just saw, is

still very rare in modern speech:

Zoo I don’t mind o’ leдven it to-morrow.

Zoo I don’t mind o’ leдven o’t to-morrow.

The second line shows a twofold occurrence of o’ after two transitive

verbs, one with and one without -en.

This -en ending can be a marker of a verbal noun, a gerund or a

present participle (as part of a progressive aspect form or on its own),

and o’ may follow in each case.


My own a-decken ov my own (‘my own way of dressing my darling’).

This is the same usage as in Standard English he doesn’t like my

driving of his car.


That wer vor hetten o’n (‘that was for hitting him’).

. . . little chance/O’ catchen o’n.

I be never the better vor zee-en o’ you.

The addition of o’ to a gerund is optional: Vor grinden any corn vor

bread is similar to Standard English.


As I wer readen ov a stwone (about a headstone).

Rogers gives two examples of the progressive aspect:

I be stackin’ on ‘em up.

I were a-peeling of the potatoes (with a different spelling).


To vind me stannen in the cwold, / A-keepen up o’ Chris’mas.

After any present participle, the use of o’ is also optional:

Where vo’k be out a-meдken haя.

The general formula is thus:

trans. V > V + o’/0

which can also be read as

MV (main verb) > trans. V + o’/0 + DO.

Here, o’ stands for o’ (the most common form), ov and even on. In modem

usage, the DO, which could be a noun or noun phrase in Barnes’s day and

age, appears from the SED materials to be restricted to personal pronouns.

For modern dialects, the formula thus reads:

MV > trans. V + o’/0 + pers. pron.

The o’ is here a transitivity operator which, exactly like an

accusative ending in a language with case declensions, disappears in the

passive. Consequently, the phenomenon under discussion here has to be

distinguished from that of prepositional verbs, which require the retention

of the preposition in the passive:

We have thought of all the possible snags. >

All the possible snags have been thought of.

The use of o’ as a transitivity operator in active declaratives is also

optional, which represents another basic difference from prepositional


Exactly the same opposition, interestingly enough, applies in south-

western dialects also:

[1] He is (a-) eдten o’ ceдkes > What is he (a-) eдten?

[2] He is (a-) dreдmen o’ceдkes > What is he (a-) dreдmen ov?

What remains a preposition in [1] and [2] works as the link between a

transitive verb and its DO. The compulsory deletion of the operator o’ in

questions relating to the DO demonstrates the importance here of the word

order (V + o’ + DO), as does also the similar triggering of deletion by


Though now used in a more restricted way, ie before personal pronouns

only, this syntactic feature is better preserved in the modern dialects

than the

-y ending of intransitive verbs, but, in so far as it is only optional, it

is easy to detect the growing influence of Standard English.

2. Diachrony as an explanation of these features.

Although the above description has not been purely synchronic, since

it cites differences in usage between the nineteenth and twentieth

centuries, it is actually only by looking back at even earlier stages of

the language that we can gain any clear insights into why the dialects have

developed in this way.

Both Widen and Wakelin remind us that the originally strictly

morphological -y ending has since developed into a syntactic feature. It is

a survival of the Middle English infinitive ending -ie(n), traceable to the

-ian suffix of the second class of Old English weak verbs (OE milcian > ME

milkie(n) > south-west dial. milky). Subsequently, -y has been analogically

extended to other types of verbs in south-west dialects under certain

syntactic conditions: in the absence of any DO, through sheer impossibility

(intransitive verb) or due to the speaker’s choice (ODV or ergative). The

only survival of medieval usage is the impossibility of a verb form like

milky being anything other than an infinitive. Note that this cannot be

labelled an archaism, since the standard language has never demonstrated

this particular syntactic specialization.

So far no explanation seems to have been advanced for the origin of

‘otiose of’, and yet it is fairly easy to resort to diachrony in order to

explain this syntactic feature. Let us start, however, with contemporary

Standard English:

[3] They sat, singing a shanty. (present participle on its own)

[4] They are singing a shanty. (progressive aspect)

[5] I like them/their singing a shanty. (gerund)

[6] I like their singing of a shanty. (verbal noun)

Here [5] and [6] are considered nominalizations from a synchronic point of

view. As far as [4] is concerned, Barnes reminds his readers that the OE

nominalization ic waes on hunlunge (‘I was in the process of hunting’, cf

Aelfric’s Colloquim: fui in. venatione) is the source of modern / was

hunting, via an older structure I was (a-) hunting which is preserved in

many dialects, the optional verbal prefix a- being what remains of the

preposition on.

The nominal nature of V-ing is still well established in the verbal

noun (with the use of of in particular), and it is here that the starting-

point of a chain reaction lies. Hybrid structures (verbal nouns/gerunds)

appeared as early as Middle English, as in

bi puttyng forth of whom so it were (1386 Petition of Mercers)

and similar gerunds followed by of were still a possibility in Elizabethan


Rend not my heart for naming of my Christ (Marlowe, Doctor Faustus)

together with verbal nouns not followed by any of:

... as the putting him clean out of his humour (B. Jonson, Every Man

out of his Humour).

Having been extended from the verbal noun to the gerund, of also

eventually spread to the progressive aspect in the sixteenth and

seventeenth centuries, at a time when the V-ing + of sequence became very

widespread in Standard English:

Are you crossing of yourself? (Marlowe, Doctor Faustus).

He is hearing of a cause (Shakespeare, Measure for Measure).

She is taking of her last farewell (Bunyan, The Pilgim’s Progress).

However, what is definitely an archaism in Standard English has been

preserved in south-western dialects, which have gone even further and also

added an optional o’ to the present participle used on its own (ie other

than in the progressive aspect). Moreover, there is even a tendency, as we

have seen, to use o’ after a transitive verb without the -en (= -ing)

ending. This tendency, which remains slight, represents the ultimate point

of a chain reaction that can be portrayed as follows:

Use of o’ in the environment following:

(A) (B) (C)


verbal noun > gerund > be + V-ing > pres. part. > V


(A) evolution from Middle English to the Renaissance;

(B) evolution typical of English in the sixteenth and seventeenth


(C) evolution typical of south-western dialects;

(D) marginal tendency in south-western dialects.

The dialect usage is more than a mere syntactic archaism: not only

have the south-western dialects preserved stages (A) and (B); they are also

highly innovative in stages (C) and (D).” (№18, p.218)

4. Vocabulary.

Devonshire (Dev)

Somersetshire (Som)

Wiltshire (Wil)

Cornwall (Cor)


Abroad - adj растерянный, незнающий, как поступить; попавший впросак,

совершивший ошибку; разваренный, расплавленный (о пище): The potatoes are

abroad. The sugar is gone abroad.

Addle, Udall, Odal (Dev) - v зарабатывать, сберегать, откладывать,

экономить; (о растениях) расти, расцветать [gu. oрla, возвр. oрlask -

приобретать (имущество), oрal - имущество]

Ail (Wil, Dev) - n ость (колоса)

Aller (Dev) - n нарыв, карбункул; тяжелый ожог: Suke died acause her

aller wanted letting.

Answer (Som) - v выносить, переносить (те или иные условия,

определенные события); выжить: That there poplar ’ont never answer out of

doors, t’ll be a ratted in no time; ~ to: реагировать на что-либо,

поддаваться воздействию чего-либо: Clay land easily answers to bones.

Any (повсеместно) - adj, adv, pron: any bit like - хороший, сносный,

приличный (о здоровье, погоде, поведении): I’ll come and see thee tomorrow

if it’s only any-bit-like; any more than - только; если бы: He’s sure to

come any more than he might be a bit late. I should be sure to go to school

any more than I’ve not got a gownd to my back.

Attle (Cor) - n мусор, отбросы


Bach, Batch, Bage (Som) - n река, ручей; долина, через которую

протекает ручей; овраг; насыпь или холм, находящиеся вблизи реки

Bad (Wil) - n внешняя земная оболочка ореха

Badge (Wil) - v заниматься перепродажей зерна, овощей и фруктов

Balch (Dev, Cor) - n небольшая веревка, кушак

Bam (Cor) - n шутка, проделка, номер: It’s nowt but a bam.

(Wil, Som) - n портянка, грубая материя, оборачиваемая вокруг


Ban (Som) - v проклинать; ругаться

Bannock (Wil, Som, Dev) - n блин / лепешка из овсянной или ячменной


Barge (Dev) - n боров; v ругать, оскорблять

Barney (Som) - n ссора, перебранка; чепуха; ошибка; плохо выполненная

работа, халтура

Barton (Wil, Dev, Som, Cor) - n крестьянский двор; подсобные помещения

в задней части крестьянского двора; крестьянский дом

Barvel (Cor) - n короткий кожаный передник, надеваемый при мытье

полов; кожаный передник рыбаков

Bate (Som, Dev) - n плохое настроение, раздраженное состояние; v

ссориться, ругаться

Beagle, Bogle (Dev) - n пугало; привидение; гротескно одетый человек,


Beet, Boot (Cor) - v чинить, ремонтировать, помогать; удовлетворять

Besgan, Biscan, Vescan (Cor) - n кожаный напальчник; матерчатая


Big (Som, Cor) - adj дружественный, близкий: Smith and Brown are very

big; v строить; v (с up) утверждать, поддержать (в мнении); быть преданным,

верным (человеку или идее)

Bogzom (Dev) - adj ярко-красный; румяный: Ya ha made ma chucks bugzom.

Bribe (Wil) - v приставать, издеваться; ругать, «пилить»: She terrible

bribed I.

Brindled (Som) - ppl adj пестрый, полосатый

Bruick-boil (Dev) - v вянуть; становиться сухой (о погоде)

Bunt (Som, Dev, Cor) - n сито; v просеивать муку

(Wil) - n вязанка хвороста

Buss, boss (Wil, Dev, Cor) - n теленок

But (Som) - n пики (в картах)

(Cor) - v вывихнуть (сустав): I’ve butted my thumb.


Cab (Som, Dev, Cor) - n липкая масса, что-либо грязное, мокрое или

липкое (adj cabby); v воровать

Cad (Som) - n самые мелкие и молодые особи (поросят, телят и др.); pl

мелкий картофель; падаль, гнилое мясо

Call (Som) - v думать, считать

Cam (Cor) - n глинистый сланец; adj изогнутый; упрямый

Casar (Dev, Cor) - n сито; v просеивать

Caw (Dev) - v дышать с трудом; n дурак

Cawk (Som) - v пороть, бить

Chack (Dev, Cor) - adj ppl chackt, chacking - испытывающий жажду;


Cheap (Som) - adj фразеол. be cheap on - вполне заслуживающий чего-


Chill (Dev, Som) - v немного подогреть (жидкость); chilled water -

теплая вода

Chilver (Wil, Som) - n ягненок

Chissom (Wil, Som, Dev) - n отросток, побег (растения); v давать

отростки, побеги

Chuck (Som, Dev) - n нижняя часть лица, шея, глотка

Clib (Dev, Cor) - v прилипать; увлажнять, смачивать

Clivan, Clevant, Callyvan, Vant (Som) - n ловушка для птиц: You be

like a wren in a clivan.

Clock (Som) - n жук

Coath (Som, Dev) - n болезнь печени у овец; v падать в обморок

Cob (Cor) - n плохо исполненная работа

Cold (Som, Dev, Wil, Cor) - to catch cold - попасть в беду; to cast

the cold of a thing - избавиться от последствий какого-либо зла или

несчастья; cold cheer - нужда; cold hand - хороший образец культуры пшеницы

или ячменя; cold lady - пудинг из муки и жира

Colley (Wil) - n сажа, грязь; свежее мясо

Colt (Wil) - n оползень; v оползать (о почве)

Cooch (Coochy) (Dev, Cor) - n левша; adj неуклюжий

Cook (Som) - v убить; притаиться, спрятаться

Coose (Dev, Cor) - v сплетничать; слоняться

Cotton (Som, Dev) - v бить, пороть

Cowerd (Wil, Som) - adj парной (о молоке)

Crib (Dev, Cor) - n еда; v воровать

Crowd (Som, Dev, Cor) - n скрипка


Dain (Wil) - adj имеющий плохой запах

Dare (Wil, Som, Dev) - v отпрянуть в ужасе, бояться; прятаться; пугать

Dawk (Wil, Som) - n дыра; v протыкать; моросить (о дожде); adj

беспомощный; v небрежно и неопрятно одеваться

Denshire (Wil, Dev) - v срезать дерн и сжигать его после просушки

Dey (Wil) - n женщина, занятая в молочном хозяйстве

Dool (Dev) - n пограничный столбик (на поле); ворота (в игре); гвоздь,

шип для скрепления половых досок; большой кусок; v ударять (плоской

поверхностью); (с off) отмечать, устанавливать границу, межу

Downy (Som) - adj хитрый, ловкий; в плохом настроении, подавленный

Drill (Dev) - v тратить время попусту; замедлять, задерживать;

заманить; заставить что-либо делать с помощью лести

Dupl (= do up) (Wil) - v открывать; закрывать, запирать; быстро идти

Dwall (Som, Dev) - v бредить, говорить бессвязно; n легкий сон

Dwam (Dev) - n обморок; приступ болезни


Ear (Wil, Som) - v пахать землю

Easse (Wil, Som) - n земляной червь

Elt, Hilt (Som, Dev) - n молодая свинья

Eve (Wil, Dev, Cor) - v потеть, выделять влагу; таять

Evil (Dev, Cor) - n вилы для навоза; вилы; v сгребать вилами


Fadge (Som, Dev, Cor) - v подходить, быть подходящим друг для друга:

They don’t fadge well together; соглашаться; преуспевать; делать работу кое-

как, спустя рукава; идти с трудом, медленно; n вид пирога; связка, сноп;

определенное количество чего-либо

Fady (Dev, Cor) - adj сырой

Fage (Som) - v льстить, подлизываться; обманывать

Fain (Dev) - v просить мира (в детских играх: Fain it! «Сдаюсь!»; adj

счачтливый, довольный; adv охотно; n (о мукй) плохого качества

Farewell (Wil, Som, Dev) - n привкус: The butter leaves a clammy

farewell in the mouth.

Favour (Dev) - v помогать, облегчать

Fawny (Dev) - n кольцо

Feat (Wil, Dev) - adj довольно большой (по размеру или количеству);

значительный; опрятный; красивый

Feer (Wil) - v пройти первую борозду при пахоте; n борозда

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