–ефераты. The House of Yorks

were attainted by Parliament. He left Aix fro Gilderland and was

immediately thrown in jail.

On 24 January 1506 Edmund commissioned two servants to treat with Henry

VII and in March 1506 was conveyed to the Tower. Henry had given Archduke

Philip his written promise not to execute Edmund.

Upon the accession of Henry VIII in 1509 Edmund was not among those

included in the general pardon. He went to the block in 1513.

Edmund married Margaret, daughter of Richard, Lord Scrope and had one

daughter Anne, who became a nun at Minories within Aldgate. He had no male


Richard de la Pole, 14?-1525

Richard was the fifth son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, and

Elizabeth, sister of Edward IV. His brothers Humphrey and Edward took

orders in the Church, Edward becoming the Archdeacon of Richmond. In 1501

Richard fled abroad with his brother Edmund. Three years later he was

attainted along with his brother. Eventually he fled to Hungary, where

Henry VII requested that King Ladislaus VI surrender Richard to him. The

Hungarian king refused and gave Richard a pension.

RichardТs name is not mentioned in the general pardon issued by Henry

VIII upon his accession in 1509. Louis XII of France recognized Richard as

king of England, giving him a pension of six thousand crowns. After the

execution of his brother Edmund in 1513, Richard assumed the title of Duke

of Suffolk and became a claimant to the English throne.

When Louis XII died in 1515, his successor Francis I continued RichardТs

allowance. As a further sign of favor, he was sent him on several missions,

including Lombardy and Bohemia. In 1522, Francis seriously thought of

sending Richard to invade England, but the invasion did not take place.

On 25 February 1525, Richard was killed, fighting in the French army at

the Battle of Pavia. The Duke of Bourbon was one of the chief mourners at

his funeral.

Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, 1446Ц1503

Born at Fotheringhay, Margaret, the third daughter of Richard, Duke of

York, and Cicely Neville, was an intelligent, charming, and accomplished

woman. Prior to the announcement of EdwardТs marriage to Elizabeth

Woodville, she had acted as the first lady of the court.

A prestigious marriage was arranged for her to Charles the Bold, Duke of

Burgundy, who was many years her senior. She had no children by him and

survived him by many years. After CharlesТ death, Margaret maintained a

close friendship with her CharlesТ only daughter Mary. The respect in which

she was held in her adopted country enabled her to play an active

supporting role for the Yorkist cause on many occasions. After the death of

her brother Richard III, she continued her efforts, backing both Lambert

Simnel and later Perkin Warbeck. She died at Malines and is buried in the

church of Cordйliers.

The arms of Burgundy, shown impaling France modern and England quarterly

on her arms were: Quarterly, first and fourth, azure, three fleurs de lys

or within a bordure gobony argent and gules; second, per pale, Bendy of six

or and azure within a bordure gules and sable, a lion rampant or; third,

per pale, Bendy of six or and azure, within a bordure gules and argent, a

lion rampant gules crowned or; over all an inescutcheon, or, a lion rampant


George of York, Duke of Clarence, 1449Ц1478

Born in Dublin, George was the sixth son of Richard, Duke of York, and

Cicely Neville. He was created Duke of Clarence in the first year of Edward

IVТsreign. Until Elizabeth Woodville finally bore Edward a son in 1470,

Clarence was the heir presumptive ,and it was soon clear to the Earl of

Warwick that he was discontented and ambitious. On 11 July 1469, George

married Isobel Neville, WarwickТs elder daughter, against the wishes of his

brother, cementing an alliance against the king. When Warwick reconciled

with Margaret of Anjou, however, and his younger daughter, Anne, was

betrothed to the Lancastrian heir, George realized that he was not to be

made king in EdwardТs place. At the last minute, he returned to the Yorkist

fold and was reconciled with Edward and his younger brother Richard. After

WarwickТs death at the Battle of Barnet in 1471, George laid claim to his

vast estates, and although eventually forced to share them when Richard of

Gloucester married the now-widowed Anne Neville, he remained a rich and

powerful prince. He continued to flout EdwardТs authority, however, and was

put in the Tower. In 1478 a Bill of Attainder passed the death sentence on

Clarence and he died in the Tower, the exact manner of his death being

unknown. Clarence and Isobel had four children, of whom two, Margaret and

Edward, survived.

ClarenceТs arms were: Quarterly, France modern and England, over all a

label of three points argent each charged with a canton gules; his crest

was On a chapeau gules turned up ermine, a lion statant guardant crowned

or, charged on the breast with a label as in the arms; his badges were A

bull passant sable armed unguled and membered or, gorged with a label of

three points argent each charged with a canton gules, and A silver gorget

of chain, edged and clasped with gold and lined with red.

Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, 1473Ц1541

Margaret was the eldest child of George, Duke of Clarence and Isobel

Neville, she married Sir Richard Pole, K.G. in 1491. They had four sons and

a daughter. During the fifth year of the reign of Henry VIII, Margaret, as

heiress to the titles of Warwick and Salisbury, petitioned the king and was

restored to the title of Countess of Salisbury. She was appointed governess

to the Princess Mary and remained in favor until Anne Boleyn became the

Queen. Her loyalty to Princess Mary caused her to be dismissed from court.

After the downfall of Anne Boleyn, Margaret returned to court. She did

not remain in favor for long. Because of the letter her son, Cardinal

Reginal Pole, wrote to the King, and of the betrayal of her son Geoffrey,

the Countess was arrested and put into the Tower in March 1539. She was

kept in the Tower under close confinement for two years and was executed

without trial. She was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church in 1886.

Her arms were: Quarterly, first, Quarterly, France modern and England, a

label of three points argent each charged with a canton gules; second,

gules, a saltire argent, a label of three points gobony argent and azure

impaling Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet or; third, Chequy or

and azure, a chevron ermine impaling Argent, three lozenges conjoined in

fess gules; fourth, Or, an eagle displayed vert impaling Quarterly, I and

IV, Or, three chevrons gules; II and III, Quarterly, Argent, and gules, a

fret or, overall a bendlet sable.

Henry Pole, Lord Montagu, 1492Ц1539

The eldest son of Margaret Plantagenet, he was knighted by Henry VIII in

1513 during HenryТs French campaign. He was a ember of the royal household

and was allowed his own livery. In 1520, he attended Henry VIII at the

Field of the Cloth of Gold. He was one of the peers who convicted Anne


As a Roman Catholic, Pole did not approve of HenryТs destroying Church

property and the anti-Catholic feeling in England. Henry was fully of

MontaguТs feelings, and through his betrayal of his brother Geoffrey Pole,

the king now had the evidence he needed to have Montagu arrested in put

into the Tower. Pole was tried and found guilty by a jury of his peers. He

went to the block on December 9 1539.

He married Jane, daughter of George Neville, Lord Bergavenny, in 1513.

They had three children. His only son may have been attainted with his

father and died in the Tower.

Geoffrey Pole, 1502?-1558

The second son of Margaret Plantagenet, little is known of his early

life. In 1529, he was knighted by Henry VIII at York Place. A devout Roman

Catholic, he greatly disapproved of Henry VIIIТs divorce proceedings from

Katherine of Aragon. Although he was appointeed one of the servitors at

Anne BoleynТs coronation, his loyalties were with Princess Mary and the

former Queen Katherine. He then visited the imprial ambassador Chapuys and

assured him that if the Holy Roman Emperor were to invade England to

redress the wrong that had been done to Queen Katherine, that the English

people would favor him.

Unfortunately, his words reached the ears of the king and he was arrested

and sent to the Tower on August 1538. He was persuaded to talk and he

revelaed the names of secret Papists at court, including his own brother,

Henry Lord Montagu. Geoffrey was pardoned as a result of his betrayal and

the others he mention, including his brother, were executed.

Having felt guilty at betraying his brother and friends, Geoffrey tried

to commit suicide while he was in the Tower. In 1540, he left his family

behind and fled to Europe, where he remained until the reign of Queen Mary.

He returned to England and died in 1558.

He married Constance, the elder of two daughter and heirs of Sir John

Pakenham. They had five sons and six daughters.

Arthur Pole, 1502-1535

Third son of Margaret Plantagenet, he was sentenced to death in the reign

of Elizabeth I, being implicated in a plot to release Mary, Queen of Scots.

Because of his royal blood, the Queen spared him from execution but not


In 1526, he married Jane Lewknor. It is not known if there were any

children from this marriage.

Reginald Pole, 1500-1558

The youngest son of Margaret Plantagenet, he graduated from Magdelan

College, Oxford. He was sent to Italy to complete his education and lived

there for five years. Reginald was another Pole family member who did not

approve of HenryТs divorce from Queen katherine. The King was well aware of

this and several times tried to get Pole on his side. At the urging of the

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Pole wrote Henry a letter, in which he

attacked HenryТs policy of royal supremacy and defended the spiritual

authority of the Pope. It was at this time that he was created a cardinal

by Pope Paul III. Henry then put a price on the new cardinalТs head and

arrested and executed many members of the pole family, including his mother

and his oldest brother Henry Lord Montagu.

When HenryТs daughter Mary became Queen, he was commission as a papal

Legate. He landed in England in 1554 and began to reorganize the country

back into the Church of Rome. Two years later he was ordained as a priest

and the following year became the Archbishop of Canterbury.

For the next two years, Cardinal Pole help Queen Mary with her

persecution of English Protestants. Disapproving of PoleТs methods, Pope

Paul IV cancelled his legatine authority and denounced him as a heretic.

Shortly afterwards, he fell ill and died twelve hours after Queen Mary on

November 17 1558.

Ursula Pole, ? -1570

Ursula was the only daughter of Margaret Plantagenet. In 1518, she

married Henry Stafford, first Baron Stafford. Very little is known of her.

It is believed that she had at least thrteen children before her death in


Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, 1474Ц1499

The son of George, Duke of Clarence, and Isobel Neville, he may have

suffered from some form of mental impairment. He lived in the royal

apartments in the Tower under the reign of his uncle Richard III. Henry VII

kept him in the Tower, but as a prisoner. When Perkin Warbeck was

imprisoned in the Tower, the two attempted to escape (possibly at the

instigation of HenryТs agents) and both were executed in 1499.

Edward IV, King of England, 1442Ц1483

By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

The eldest son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Edward was

born in Rouen, France, on April 28, 1442. He was educated at Ludlow Castle,

along with his younger brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland. He inherited the

title of Earl of March. Edward. was raising forces in the Welsh borders for

the Yorkist cause when his father and younger brother Edmund were killed at

the Battle of Wakefield in 1460. Acting speedily and decisively, Edward

routed the Lancastrians at the battles of MortimerТs Cross and Towton, and

claimed the throne. Henry VI was then acclaimed a usurper and a traitor.

Edward was crowned in June 1461. He was an extremely popular ruler,

although well-known for his licentious behaviour. During his reign,

printing and silk manufacturing were introduced into England.

EdwardТs secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, a widow of a Lancastrian

knight, angeed the old nobility and alienated his cousin Richard Neville,

Earl of Warwick (also known as "The Kingmaker"), who had previously been a

major power during the early days of EdwardТs reign. In 1469, Edward was

deposed by Warwick, and was drien out of England and to Burgundy. Warwick

reinstated Henry VI. Two years later, backed by his brother-in-law, Charles

("The Bold"), Duke of Burgundy, returned to England with a large army and

defeated the Lancastrians at the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury.

The remaining years of his reign were, for the most part, peaceful. There

was, however, a short war with France in 1475, after which Louis XI agreed

to pay Edward a yearly subsidy. Edward died on April 8 1483 and was buried

at St. GeorgeТs Chapel, Windsor.

As King, EdwardТs arms were: Quarterly, France modern and England, and

his crest On a chapeau gules turned up ermine, a lion statant guardant

crowned or. As badges, he used the white rose of York, the sun in

splendour, and the white rose en soliel, as well as the lion, the bull and

the hart, the falcon and fetterlock of the dukes of York, and a white rose

incorporating red petals, a forerunner of the Tudor rose.

Elizabeth Woodville, 1437Ц1492, Queen of England

Elizabeth was the eldest child of Sir Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of

Luxembourg. She was maid of honor to Margaret of Anjou. She was married to

Sir John Grey of Groby, who was killed in battle in 1461, leaving her with

two small sons. Elizabeth married Edward IV secretly in April 1464 and was

crowned Queen in May 1465. She was also a patroness of QueensТ College,

Cambridge and gave the College its first Statues in 1475. Her ten brothers

and sisters, who were as avaricious and unpopular as herself, were raised

to high rank by the king. Elizabeth and Edward had three sons and seven


Following her husbandТs death in 1483, their marriage was declared

invalid by Parliament and their children illegitimate. In 1485, however,

ElizabethТs eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, married Henry VII and

became Queen of England. Elizabeth Woodville was subsequently banished to

Bermondsey Abbey, where she died in 1492.

Elizabeth WoodvilleТs seal displayed a shield of her husbandТs arms

impaling her own, which were Quartlerly, first argent, a lion rampant

double queued gules, crowned or (Luxemburg, her motherТs family), second

quarterly, I and IV, gules a star if eight points argent; II and III,

azure, semйe of fleurs de lys or; third, barry argent and azure, overall a

lion rampant gules; fourth, gules, three bendlets argent, on a chief of the

first, charged with a fillet in base or, a rose of the second; fifth, three

pallets vairy, on a chief or a label of five points azure, and sixth, a

fess and a canton conjoined gules (Woodville).

Children of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth of York, 1466Ц1503, Queen of England

Born 11 February, 1466 at Westminster Palace, Elizabeth was the first

born child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. She was betrothed to

George Neville, Duke of Bedford, and then engaged to the Charles, the

Dauphin of France (later Charles VIII). Elizabeth married Henry Tudor in

1486 and became Queen of England, thus uniting the Houses of York and

Lancaster. As. Queen, she was completely dominated by Henry VII and his

mother Margaret Beaufort.

She bore Henry eight children: (1) Arthur, Prince of Wales, b. 1486; (2)

Margaret (later Queen of Scotland) b. 1489; (3) Henry (later Henry VII) b.

1491; (4) Elizabeth b.1492; (5) Mary (later Queen of France and Duchess of

Suffolk) b. 1496; (6) Edmund (died young) 1499; (7) Edward (died young);

and (8) Katherine (died young) b. 1503. Elizabeth died in childbirth in on

her birthday in 1503, at the age of 37 years. She is buried beside her

husband in the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey.

Mary of York, 1467-1482

Mary was the second daughter, born 11 August, 1467 at Windsor Castle. She

was promised in marriage to the King of Denmark, but died in 1482 before

the marriage could take place. She is buried in St. GeorgeТs Chapel,


Cicely of York, 1469Ц1507, Viscountess Welles

Cicely was born on 20 March 1469 at Westminster Palace. She was

originally promised in a marriage treaty to the heir of James III of

Scotland but instead married John, Lord Welles, by whom she had two

daughters Elizabeth and Anne, both of whom died without issue. By her

second marriage, to Thomas Kyme of Isle of Wight, she had Richard and

Margaret. She died at Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight on 24 August 1507.

Edward V, 1470Ц?

The eldest son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, Edward was born in

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