Рефераты. The House of Yorks

sanctuary at Westminster on 4 November 1470. He was created Prince of

Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, March and Pembroke. As Prince of

wales, Edward was educated at Ludlow Castle by his uncle Anthony, Earl


Following his father’s death, he was brought to London to be crowned.

Parliament, however, declared him to be illegitimate and Richard of

Gloucester became king. Edward and his brother Richard lived in the Tower

of London during the summer of 1483. Their fate is unknown.

Edward’s arms as king were: Quarterly, France modern and England, and his

crest on his Great Seal; on a chapeau gules turned up ermine encircled by a

royal coronet, a lion statant guardant crowned or.

Margaret of York, b. and d. 1472

This child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville (not to be confused with

her aunt of the same name) was born 10 April 1472 at Windsor Castle and

died on 11 December of the same year. She is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Richard, Duke of York, 1473–?

Born at Shrewsbury, the second son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville,

Richard was created Duke of York in 1474. In 1478, at the age of four

years, Richard was married to six-year-old Anne Mowbray, who had inherited

the estates of her father John Lord Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk in 1475. They

married at St Stephen’s Chapel, Westminster, but Anne Mowbray died while

still a child. When his brother, Edward V, was deposed, young Richard, who

had been in sanctuary with his mother, was taken by the Archbishop of

Canterbury to live with his brother in the Royal Apartments in the Tower of

London. Their fate remains a mystery, but many contemporary heads of state

including (in secret correspondance, but not publicly) the Spanish King and

Queen, believed the claimant Perkin Warbeck, executed by Henry VII, to be


His arms were: Quarterly, France modern and England, a label of three

points, argent on the first point a canton gules; his crest was On a

chapeau gules turned up ermine, a lion statant guardant crowned or, gorged

with a label as in the arms, and his badge a falcon volant argent, membered

or, within a fetterlock unlocked gold.

George of York, Duke of Bedford, 1477-1479

The seventh child and third youngest son of Edward IV and Eizabeth

Woodville, he was created Duke of Bedford, but died very young. He is

buried at Windsor.

Anne of York, 1475-1510

Anne was married to Thomas Howard, third Duke of Norfolk. She died in

1510 without surviving issue.

Catherine of York, 1479–1527

The sixth daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, Catherine

married William Courtenay, Earl of Devon, and had one child, Henry, who

succeeded his father as Earl. Despite being made Marquis of Exeter, Henry’s

Yorkist blood doomed him, and he was beheaded in 1538 for being implicated

in a plot with Cardinal Pole. Henry’s only son, Edward Courtenay, died

without issue, and the descendants of this family are from the younger

brother of an earlier generation.

The arms of Catherine were her husband’s arms impaling her own:

Quarterly, first and fourth, or, three torteaux; second and third, or a

lion rampant azure; impaling quarterly, first, quarterly, France modern and

England, second and third, de Burgh, and fourth Mortimer.

The arms of Henry Courtenay were: Quarterly, first, France and England

quarterly, within a bordure quarterly of England and France, second and

third, or, three torteaux; fourth, or a lion rampant azure,; and his crest,

out of a ducal coronet or, a plume of ostrich feathers four and three


Bridget of York, 1480-1513

The tenth and last child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, she became

a nun at Dartford and died in 1513.

Richard III 1452–1485

By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

Richard III was born on the 2 October, 1452 in Fotheringhay Castle during

the tumultuous period known as the Wars of the Roses. His personal motto of

Loyaulte Me Lie was a testament of his unswerving loyalty for his brother,

Edward IV.

In 1461, he was sent to Middleham Castle to begin his knightly training

under his cousin, Richard Neville, known as "The Kingmaker". In 1472, he

married the Lady Anne Neville and they retired to Middleham. As Lord of the

North, Richard spent the next twelve years bringing peace and order to an

otherwise troublesome area of England. Through his hard work and diligence,

he attracted the loyalty and trust of the northern gentry. His

fairmindedness and justice became his byword. He had a good working

reputation of the law, was an able administrator and was militarily

formidable. Under his leadership, he won a brilliant campaign against the

Scots that is diminished by our lack of understanding of the region in his


He enjoyed a special relationship with the city of York and intervened on

its behalf on many occasions. Richard, known to be a pious man, was

instrumental in setting up no less than ten chantries and procured two

licenses to establish two colleges; one at Barnard Castle in County Durham

and the other at Middleham in Yorkshire. It is known that his favorite

castle was Middleham and he was especially generous to the church raising

it to the status of collegiate college. The statutes, written in English

rather than Latin, were drawn up under his supervision.

With the untimely death of his brother, Edward IV in 1483, he was

petitioned by the Lords and Commons of Parliament to accept the kingship of

England. During his brief reign, he passed the most enlightened laws on

record for the Fifteenth Century. He set up a council of advisors that

diplomatically included Lancastrian supporters, administered justice for

the poor as well as the rich, established a series of posting stations for

royal messengers between the North and London. He fostered the importation

of books, commanded laws be written in English instead of Latin so the

common people could understand their own laws. He outlawed benevolences,

started the system of bail and stopped the intimidation of juries. He re-

established the Council of the North in July of 1484 and it lasted for more

than a century and a half. He established the College of Arms that still

exists today. He donated money for the completion of St. George's Chapel at

Windsor and King's College in Cambridge. He modernized Barnard Castle,

built the great hall at Middleham and the great hall at Sudeley Castle. He

undertook extensive work at Windsor Castle and ordered the renovation of

apartments at one of the towers at Nottingham Castle.

In 1484, while Richard and Anne were at Nottingham, they received word

that their beloved son, Edward, who was at Middleham, died suddenly after a

brief illness. His wife, Anne, never recovered from the loss of her son and

died almost a year later. Her body was borne to Westminster Abbey and laid

to rest on the south side of St. Edward's Chapel. Richard wept openly at

her funeral and later shut himself off for three days.

In eighteen months, he lost brother, son and spouse. Throughout these

tragedies, he remained steadfast to his obligations. His reign showed great

promise, but amidst the intrigues and power struggles of his time, he found

himself on Bosworth Field. Richard III was 32 years old when he died at the

Battle of Bosworth and was the last English king to die in battle.

Arms as Duke of Gloucester: France and England modern, over all a 3-

pointed label ermine, on each point a conton gules.

Arms: Quarterly, France modern and England, and his crest on his Great

Seal; on a chapeau gules turned up ermine encircled by a royal coronet, a

lion statant guardant crowned or; special cognisant, a boar rampant argent,

armed and bristled or.

Anne Neville, Queen of England, 1456-1485

Anne Neville was born on 11 June 1456 at Warwick Castle, the younger

daughter of Richard Warwick ("The King Maker") and Anne Beauchamp, heiress

to the large Beauchamp estate. She spent her childhhod at warwick Castle

along with her older sister Isabel. In 1469, her father, no longer in favor

with Edward IV, fled to Calais, bringing his family with him. Shortly

afterwards, Warwick went over to the Lancastrians, and Anne was betrothed

to the Lancastrian Prince Edward, Prince of Wales. Her father and uuncle

John were killed at Barnet in April 1471. Edward of Lancaster died at

Tewkesbury a month later. She married Richard, Duke of Gloucester and they

spent most of their married life at Middleham Castle. They had only one

living child, Edward, Prince of Wales. In 1484, Prince Edward died. Anne

never recovered and died, probably of tuberculosis, in March 1485, just

five months before her husband Richard.

Her arms were: Quarterly, France modern and England, impaling gules, a

saltire argent.

Edward, Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Salisbury, 1473–1484

Edward was the only surviving child of Richard III and Queen Anne. He was

born at Middleham Castle, Yorkshire and was created Prince of Wales during

the first year of his father’s reign. Edward suddenly became ill with

abdominal pain in 1484 and quickly died, possibly of appendicitis. His

parents were distraught with grief and his death may have hastened Anne’s


Arms: Quarterly, France modern and England, a label of three points


John of Gloucester

John was Richard III’s illegitimate son. His mother is unknown. He was

also called John of Pomfret, his father appointed him Captain of Calais in

1485, calling him ‘our dear son’. After his father’s death, during the

reign of Henry VII, John was beheaded on the pretext of treasonable

activities in Ireland.

Lady Catherine Plantagenet

Katherine was the illegitimate daughter of Richard III. Her mother is

unknown. In 1484, Katherine was married to William Herbert, Earl of

Huntingdon. Richard settled property worth 1,000 marks a year on the

couple. Katherine died young without producing any living children.

Some concrete facts about kings which had come frjm The House of York

Edward IV (1461-70, 1471-83 AD)

[pic]Edward IV, son of Richard, Duke of York and Cicely Neville, was born

in 1442. He married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464, the widow of the

Lancastrian Sir John Grey, who bore him ten children. He also entertained

many mistresses and had at least one illegitimate son.

Edward came to the throne through the efforts of his father; as Henry VI

became increasingly less effective, Richard pressed the claim of the York

family but was killed before he could ascend the throne: Edward deposed his

cousin Henry after defeating the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross in 1461.

Richard Neville, the Kingmaker, Earl of Warwick proclaimed Henry king once

again in 1470, but less than a year elapsed when Edward reclaimed the crown

and had Henry executed in 1471.

The rest of his reign was fairly uneventful. He revived the English claim

to the French throne and invaded the weakened France, extorting a non-

aggression treaty from Louis XI in 1475 which amounted to a lump payment of

75,000 crowns, and an annuity of 20,000. Edward had his brother, George,

Duke of Clarendon, judicially murdered in 1478 on a charge of treason. His

marriage to Elizabeth Woodville vexed his councilors, and he allowed many

of the great nobles (such as his brother Richard) to build

uncharacteristically large power bases in the provinces in return for their


Edward died suddenly in 1483, leaving behind two sons aged twelve and

nine, five daughters, and a troubled legacy.

Edward began his reign in 1461 and ruled for eight years before Henry's

brief return. His reign is marked by two distinct periods, the first in

which he was chiefly engaged in suppressing the opposition to his throne,

and the second in which he enjoyed a period of relative peace and security.

Both periods were marked also by his extreme licentiousness; it is said

that his sexual excesses were the cause of his death (it may have been

typhoid), but he was praised highly for his military skills and his

charming personality. When Edward married Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner

of great beauty, but regarded as an unfit bride for a king, even Warwick

turned against him. We can understand Warwick's switch to Margaret and to

Edward's young brother, the Duke of Clarence, when we learn that he had

hoped the king would marry one of his own daughters.

Clarence continued his activities against his brother during the second

phase of Edward's reign; his involvement in a plot to depose the king got

him banished to the Tower where he mysteriously died (drowned in his bath).

Edward had meanwhile set up a council with extensive judicial and military

powers to deal with Wales and to govern the Marches. His brother, the Duke

of Gloucester headed a council in the north. He levied few subsidies,

invested his own considerable fortune in improving trade; freed himself

from involvement in France by accepting a pension from the French King; and

all in all, remained a popular monarch. He left two sons, Edward and

Richard, in the protection of Richard of Gloucester, with the results that

have forever blackened their guardian's name in English history.

Edward V (1483 AD)

Edward V, eldest son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, was born in

1470. He ascended the throne upon his father's death in April 1483, but

reigned only two months before being deposed by his uncle, Richard, Duke of

Gloucester. The entire episode is still shrouded in mystery. The Duke had

Edward and his younger brother, Richard, imprisoned in the Tower and

declared illegitimate and named himself rightful heir to the crown. The two

young boys never emerged from the Tower, apparently murdered by, or at

least on the orders of, their Uncle Richard. During renovations to the

Tower in 1674, the skeletons of two children were found, possibly the

murdered boys.

Richard III (1483-85)

[pic]Richard III, the eleventh child of Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily

Neville, was born in 1452. He was created third Duke of Gloucester at the

coronation of his brother, Edward IV. Richard had three children: one each

of an illegitimate son and daughter, and one son by his first wife, Anne

Neville, widow of Henry IV's son Edward.

Richard's reign gained an importance out of proportion to its length. He

was the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since

1154; he was the last English king to die on the battlefield; his death in

1485 is generally accepted between the medieval and modern ages in England;

and he is credited with the responsibility for several murders: Henry VI ,

Henry's son Edward, his brother Clarence, and his nephews Edward and


Richard's power was immense, and upon the death of Edward IV , he

positioned himself to seize the throne from the young Edward V . He feared

a continuance of internal feuding should Edward V, under the influence of

his mother's Woodville relatives, remain on the throne (most of this feared

conflict would have undoubtedly come from Richard). The old nobility, also

fearful of a strengthened Woodville clan, assembled and declared the

succession of Edward V as illegal, due to weak evidence suggesting that

Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was bigamous, thereby rendering

his sons illegitimate and ineligible as heirs to the crown. Edward V and

his younger brother, Richard of York, were imprisoned in the Tower of

London, never to again emerge alive. Richard of Gloucester was crowned

Richard III on July 6, 1483.

Four months into his reign he crushed a rebellion led by his former

assistant Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who sought the installation

of Henry Tudor , a diluted Lancaster, to the throne. The rebellion was

crushed, but Tudor gathered troops and attacked Richard's forces on August

22, 1485, at the battle of Bosworth Field. The last major battle of the

Wars of the Roses, Bosworth Field became the death place of Richard III.

Historians have been noticeably unkind to Richard, based on purely

circumstantial evidence; Shakespeare portrays him as a complete monster in

his play, Richard III. One thing is for certain, however: Richard's defeat

and the cessation of the Wars of the Roses allowed the stability England

required to heal, consolidate, and push into the modern era.

Richard of Gloucester had grown rich and powerful during the reign of his

brother Edward IV, who had rewarded his loyalty with many northern estates

bordering the city of York. Edward had allowed Richard to govern that part

of the country, where he was known as "Lord of the North." The new king was

a minor and England was divided over whether Richard should govern as

Protector or merely as chief member of a Council. There were also fears

that he may use his influence to avenge the death of his brother Clarence

at the hands of the Queen's supporters. And Richard was supported by the

powerful Duke of Buckingham, who had married into the Woodville family

against his will.

Richard's competence and military ability was a threat to the throne and

the legitimate heir Edward V. After a series of skirmishes with the forces

of the widowed queen, anxious to restore her influence in the north,

Richard had the young prince of Wales placed in the Tower. He was never

seen again though his uncle kept up the pretence that Edward would be

safely guarded until his upcoming coronation. The queen herself took

sanctuary in Westminster Abbey, but Richard had her brother and father


Edward's coronation was set for June, 1483. Richard planned his coup.

First he divided the ruling Council, convincing his own followers of the

need to have Lord Hastings executed for treason. (It had been Hastings who

had informed him of the late King's death and the ambitions of the Queen's

party). He then had his other young nephew Richard join Edward in the

Tower. One day after that set for Edward's coronation, Richard was able to

pressure the assembled Lords and Commons in Parliament to petition him to

assume the kingship. After his immediate acceptance, he then rode to

Westminster and was duly crowned as Richard III. His rivals had been

defeated and the prospects for a long, stable reign looked promising. Then

it all unraveled for the treacherous King.

It is one thing to kill a rival in battle but it is another matter to

have your brother's children put to death. By being suspected of this evil

deed, Richard condemned himself. Though the new king busied himself

granting amnesty and largesse to all and sundry, he could never cleanse

himself of the suspicion surrounding the murder of the young princes. He

had his own son Edward invested as Prince of Wales, and thus heir to his

throne, but revulsion soon set in to destroy what, for all intents and

purposes, could have been a well-managed, competent royal administration.

It didn't help Richard much that even before he took the throne he had

denounced the Queen "and her blood adherents," impugned the legitimacy of

his own brother and his young nephews and stigmatized Henry Tudor's royal

blood as bastard. The rebellion against him started with the defection of

the Duke of Buckingham whose open support of the Lancastrian claimant

overseas, Henry Tudor, transformed a situation which had previously favored


The king was defeated and killed at Bosworth Field in 1485, a battle that

was as momentous for the future of England as had been Hastings in 1066.

The battle ended the Wars of the Roses, and for all intents and purposes,

the victory of Henry Tudor and his accession to the throne conveniently

marks the end of the medieval and the beginning of England's modern period.


1. www.britannia.com\history

2. www.numizmat.net

3. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/Y/York-hou.html

4. http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs

5. www.hotbot.com

6. www.yahoo.com

Страницы: 1, 2, 3

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.