Back – forward

He distinguished the choice open to him of forward or back, and he

selected forward.

Beast – man

But man or beast, it will be wise to stay here a minute and let get by

and out of the way.

Begin – end

Romance should never begin with sentiment. It should begin with

science and end with a settlement.

Clever – foolish

You don’t mean to say that this charming, clever young lady has been

so foolish as to accept you?

Begin – finish

Office affairs are easy to begin and difficult to finish, particularly

in a small town.

Cold – hot

First you are hot, then you are cold, and the best you have got is the

fact you are old.

Complicated – simple

“But this is complicated.” -“And on the paper very simple,” Robert

Jordon grinned.

Cool – warm

For the first time her lips were not cool, shut and sisterly, but warm

and open and delicious.

Dangerous – safe

But i think you are unreasonable. A thing cannot be bad because it is

too dangerous and too safe.

Darkness – light

Therefor whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in


Deed – word

Annie Bauman was the only one who did not feel ashamed to avow herself

by word and deed the companion of Gretel and them.

Find – lose

You do that when you’ve lost a horseshoe that you’ve found, instead of

nailing it up over the door.

Forget – remember

Soldiers must not forget, they said, soldiers must not remember; all

that’s treason.

Friend – enemy

I asked for us to be friends, Margaret, not enemies.

Gain – loss

“Let us weigh the gain and loss,” he quoted, “in wagering that God is,

let us entimate these chances. If you gained, you gain all; if you lose,

you lose nothing.”

Good – harm

He must have been doing more harm than good around here.

Give – receive

We know what we give, we cannot know what we receive.

Guilty – innocent

So the law assumed there must be one guilty party, and one innocent

party who has been wronged by desertion of the matrimonial bed.

Happy – miserable

He seemed to think it remarkable that he should be so miserable in

axactly the same place where he had once been happy.

Heavy – light

His head felt empty, light as air; his feet were heavy as lead.


The journey from ignorance to knowledge of an individual student may

remain a unique series of events whilst being controlled by a set of fixed


Left – right

Dora paid grocery bills right and left for two years.

Loathe – love

If a man and woman sinned, let them go for into the desert to love or

loathe each other there.

Lose – win

Win or lose – nothing worse for public life than private ruction.

Never – now

This overmastering wish of this – for its fulfilment it was now or

never with him!

War – peace

I do not claim that, even today, the issues of right and wrong, of war

and peace are so clear to everyone as they were in my special


Pleasure – sorrow

Whether from pleasure or from sorrow, great tears fell from my stupid

eyes on Lorna’s letter.

Private – public

Yet, Monseigneur had slowly found that vulgar embarrassment crept into

his affairs, both private and public.

Rise – sink

Martin sank or rose to Clif’s buoyancy, while Clif rose or sank to

Martin’s speculativeness.

Ancient – modern

“That’s the modern views, anyway,” – “According to report the ancient

one too.”

Annoy – please

He began to believe she might be in love with him and the thought was

both pleasing and annoying.

Artificial – natural

He made the most dismal sounds i’ve ever heard produced by any means,

natural or artificial.

Blessing – curse

Still, as i see it, marriage is a very sacred thing and children are a

blessing – not a curse.

Comedy – tragedy

Old – young

The sole is born old but grows young. That is the comedy of life. And

the body is born young and grows old. That is life’s tragedy.

Ashamed – proud

I know what love means now, and instead of being ashamed of, i’m proud

of it.

Fast – slow

They sent me down a succession of compact, 9 boys who used to go fast

when i wanted to go slow, and slow when i wanted to go fast.

Giant – pigmy

“So you think your friend in the city will be hard upon me, if i fail

a payment?” – says the trooper, looking down upon him like a giant. “My

dear friend, i am afraid he will,” – returns the old man looking up at him

like a pigmy.

Open – close

Maida opened ii just wide enough for me to enter, then closed it again


Question – answer

“A lot of nice one, eh?” – said Maida, she had the local habit of

placing the word “eh” at the end of her remarks, questions and answers


Young – old

Kathleen was a little younger then me, but looked much older.

Man – woman

“I’ll say, man” – said Isa, for she also used the common currency,

adding “man” to most of the statements she addressed to man and woman


Black – white

I have no objection to sit down and listen, but i don’t see how than

can make black white.

Boy – girl

“Thomas, if it’s a boy,” – she said “after my uncle. But if it’s a

girl i’d like something fancy for a first name.”

More – less

But she kept eyeing Henry with interest, and the reproachful tone was

more or less a routine affair.

Come – go

The hell with the money: come easy go easy.

Clean – dirty

She didn’t simply look clean, she looked as if she had never been


Lie – truth

And remember, the truth, however ashamed of it you may be, is better

than any lie.

With - without

We must not think of the things we could do with but only of the

things that we can’t do without.

Love – money

Dehn, son – in – law, who had married Pamela – whether for love or

money was never quite clear to the widow.

Here – there

There were ships of mail standing like ghosts in armour, here and


Near – far

Near, far wherever you are, i believe that the heart does go on.

Вторая группа антонимов, аффиксальных, образуется при помощи

отрицательных префиксов: un -, который предает глаголу противоположное

значение, существительным, прилагательным и наречиям – отрицательное

значение не; без; in -; (il -; im -; ir -;); dis -, который предает слову

отрицательное значение, указывает на лишение чего – либо, указывает на

разделение, рассеивание в разные стороны; и отрицательного суффикса –less,

который предает слову отрицательное значение..

Аффиксальные антонимы:

Willing – unwilling

Gordon had made Smith an easy partner in these thefts, not willing and

unwilling, but simply an assumed partner.

Willing – done, given, etc. readily or enthusiastically.

Unwilling – not wanted to do something.

В значении слова unwilling содержится отрицательная частица NOT,

которая является элементом образования антонимов, поэтому данные слова

являются антонимами.

Happy – unhappy

“Sue, i believe you are not happy…” – “Of course, i am!” – she

contracted. “How can a woman be unhappy who has only been married eight

weeks to a man she chose freely?”

Happy – fortunate, lucky.

Unhappy – unfortunate; that is or should be regarded.

Значение слова unhappy содержит отрицательное слово unfortunate,

которое образовалось от fortunate+un, который предает слову отрицательное

значение, поэтому данные слова являются антонимами.

Honest – dishonest

This man Steuer fancied that he was dishonest, and that he,

Mallenhauer, was honest.

Honest – telling the truth; not lying.

Dishonest – not honest.

Значение слова dishonest содержит отрицательную частицу NOT, которая

является элементом образования антонимов, поэтому данные слова будут


Approve – disapprove

Who am i to approve or disapprove?

Approve – to feel or believe that somebody/something is good,

acceptable or satisfactory.

Disapprove – to consider somebody/something to be bad, wrong, foolish.

Значения данных слов содержат противоположные семы good и bad, поэтому

эти слова являются антонимами.

Dependent - independent

We’re all really dependent in nearly everything and we make a fuss

about being independent in something.

Dependent – needing somebody/something in order to live or survive.

Independent – not dependent on other people or thing.

Значение слова independent содержит отрицательную частицу NOT, которая

является элементом образования антонима, поэтому данные слова являются


Human – inhuman

Like – dislike

“But why do you like markets and dislike stories?” – “Because markets

are human and stories inhuman.”

Human – kind, good.

Inhuman – lacking normal human qualities of kindness, pity, etc,

extremely cruel.

Значения данных слов содержат противоположные семы good и cruel,

поэтому эти слова являются антонимичной парой.

Legal – illegal

They rallied the Negro people and their allies against the lynches,

legal and illegal.

Legal – of, based on or concerned with the law.

Illegal – against the law; not legal.

Значение слова illegal содержится отрицательная частица NOT, которая

является элементом образования антонимов, поэтому данные слова будут


Visible – invisible

In the see there are more things invisible, than visible.

Visible – that can be seen; in sight.

Invisible – that cannot be seen; not visible.

Значение слова visible содержит отрицательную частицу NOT, которая

является элементом образования антонимов, поэтому данные слова являются


Regular – irregular

But these footsteps were so odd that one couldn’t decide them regular

or irregular.

Regular – done or happening often, frequently.

Irregular – not happening, coming, done, etc. regular, varying.

Значение слова irregular содержит отрицательную частицу NOT, которая

является элементом образования антонимов, поэтому данные слова будут


Coloured – uncoloured

On those walls, wherever the eye roved, were prints coloured and

uncoloured, old and new, depicting the sports of racing and prize –


Tied – untied

People get tied up, and sometimes they stay tied – because they want

to stay or because they haven’t the will power to break or others become

untied and make a new start.

Engage – disengage

“How soon will you be disengaged?” “I didn’t say you i was engaged.”

Explicable – inexplicable

The proposal was monstrous, inexplicable or explicable only by the

assumption that his mind, while not unhinged, had temporarily lost its


Filial – unfilial

“I have seen a good deal of what is filial in my times, Sir,” said

Mould, “and what is unfilial too.”

Inside – outside

And also, he expected that the management demanded of all boys that

they look well outside as well as inside the hotel.

Just – unjust

The A.F. of L. port leaders, as loyal servitors of capitalism,

unquestionable support all wars, just or unjust, declared by the capitalist

class and its government.

Kindness – unkindness

Clare thanked Sir Willoughby for the kindness thinking of her father,

mentally analising the kindness, in which at least she found no unkindness,

scarcely egoism, though she knew it to be true.

Latching – unlatching

The German major looked obliquely at Yetes, his slender fingers

latching and unlatching.

Lock – unlock

None went near them, either to lock or unlock.

Able – unable

“Suppose i am unable to do the job?” – “Then you wouldn’t be able to

cash the note.”

Active inactive

The cumulative effect of merely remaining inactive when one ought to

be active was terrible.

Adequate – inadequate

To pull is to exert a drawing force whether adequate or inadequate; as

the fish pull on the line, as dentist pulls a tooth.

Advantages– disadvantages

Only much later did Tony attempt to sum up the advantages and

disadvantages of his upbringing.

Appearing – disappearing

He had a talent for appearing when he was not wanted, and a talent for

disappearing when he was wanted.

Audible – inaudible

Little audible links, they are chaining together great inaudible

feelings and purposes.

Aware – unaware

If the American was too aware of himself, then this Russian was too

unaware of himself.

Believe – disbelieve

I am neutral. I don’t believe in ghosts but i don’t disbelieve in


Calculable – incalculable

All is capria; the calculable world has become incalculable.

Clasp – unclasp

As they rode – in complete silence for a while – he hands clasped and

unclasped definitely.

Сlinch – unclinch

They swayed back clinched together against the gate; then both, as if

struck by the same idea unclinched and raised their fists.

Concerned – unconcerned

It concerned her in some way, but she herself was unconcerned, and she

slid without effort into the position of mistress of the farm.

Decisive – indecisive

Katherine admired him for it and would always choose him in his

decisive moments in preference to an indecisive MacGregor.

Democratic– undemocretic

Of course, there are different forms of capitalist rule. There are

constitutional and unconstitutional monarchies, democratic and undemocratic

republics, personal, military and fascist dictatorships.

Do – undo

What’s done can’t be undone.

Emotional – unemotional

A shrewed observer might have remarked that the emotional temperature

rather rose at so unemotional interruption.

Encourage – discourage

Thus, the editorial sought to encourage fascist elements in the

community and to discourage all who might fear violence.

Worthiness – unworthiness

The sense of unworthiness is a guarantee of the worthiness ensuing.

Free – unfree

In fact, she had felt as she still felt neither free nor unfree.


“Then mr. Rouncewell,” returns Sir Leicester, “ the application of

what you have said is to me incomprehensible.” – “Will it be more

comprehensible Sir Leicester if i say…”

Heroic – unheroic

He ordered early breakfast, and wanted to look at the newspaper, and

felt somehow heroic and useful in not looking at it. But there were still

crawling and totally unheroic hours of waiting before Dr. Patten returned.

Civilized – uncivilized

Sometimes you think its soft and sometimes sly, and sometimes

murderous, and sometimes uncivilized and all the time it’s only civilized.

Frequently – infrequently

The curtains were always heavy, frequently brown and infrequently red.

Tangible – intagible

And behind this tangible dread there was always that intangible

trouble, lurking in the background.

Pleasant - unpleasant

“Really, Barbara, you go on as if religion was a pleasant subject.” –

“I don’t find it an unpleasant subject, my dear.”

Likes – dislikes

“Things do last,” cried Fleur “with me anyhow – especially likes and


Humorous – unhumorous

He was becoming like Katherine – planning humorous situations at

unhumorous moments.

Reasonable – unreasonable

Now it seemed one of the most reasonable things in the world that i

should have come, and now one of the most unreasonable.

Morality - immorality

Just as one doesn’t mind men practising immorality so long as they own

they are in the wrong by preaching morality, so i could forgive Andrew for

preaching immorality while practised morality.

Adulterated– unadulterated

My products all fresh, pure unadulterated, stamped and correctly

weighed… We have never adulterated our opium since that day.


Intelligently or unintelligently, i try to follow the line of self –

interest, because as i see it there is no other guide.

Chequered – unchequered

Soams had been her mainstay throughout 34 years chequered by Montegue

Darty, had continued her mainstay in the theirteen unchequered years since.

Capable – incapable

We agreed we were capable of almost anything and we agreed he was

incapable of hurting his master.

Mature – immature

His mind is a mature, not an immature one.

Order - disorder

Well, Clara’s not like you. She belongs to the new order or disorder.

Selfish – unselfish

The love of a mother for the children is dominant, leonine, selfish

and unselfish.

Однако, следует заметить, что не у всех значений одного и того же

слова могут быть антонимы.

Agree – v. Из пяти значений только три имеют антонимы:

1.to say “yes”, ex: I asked for a pay rise and she agreed. – refuse.

2.to have a similar opinion to somebody, ex: I agree with his analysis

of the situation. – disagree.

3.to be consisted with something; to match, ex: You account of the

affair doesn’t agree with hers. – disagree.

Broad – adj. Из восьми значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.large in extent from one side to the other, wide, ex: He’s tall, broad

and muscular. – thin.

Credit – n. Из семи значений только два имеют антонимы: 1.the

state of having money in one’s bank account, ex: I’m about $400 in credit

at the moment. – debit.

2.praise, approval, respect, ex: I can’t

take any of the credit – the others did all the work. – discredit.

Direct – adj. Из четырех значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.exact, complete, ex: That’s the direct opposite of what you told me

yesterday. – indirect.

Full – adj. Из двух значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.containing as much as possible; completely filled, ex: The cupboard was

stuffed full of old newspapers. – empty.

Hard – adj. Из тринадцати значений только три имеют антонимы:

1.stif and solid and not easy bent or broken, ex: Ground made hard by

frost. – soft.

2.not feeling or showing

affection, pity, etc, ex: They exchanged hard words and went the separate

ways. – soft.

3.containing calcium and

other mineral salts , ex: Our water is very hard. – soft.

Order – n. Из четырнадцати значений только два имеют антонимы:

1.the state that exists when people obey the laws, rules or authority, ex:

The police are trying to restore public order. – disorder.

2.the state of being

carefully and neatly arranged, ex: Get your ideas into some kind of order

before beginning to write. – disorder.

Black – adj. Из девяти значений только три имеют антонимы:

1.of the very darkest colour, ex: A big black cloud appeared. – white.

2.without milk, ex: Two black

coffees, please. – white.

3.of a race that has dark skin, ex: Many black people emigrated to Britain

it the 1950s. – white.

Wet – adj. Из четырех значений только два имеют антонимы:

1.covered or soak with liquid, esp. Water, ex: Her cheeks were wet with

tears. – dry.

2.raining, ex: It was the wettest October for many years. – dry.

Остальные значения этого слова не имеют антонимов:

3.recently applied and not yet dry or set.

4.without energy, strenth or courage.

Active – adj. Из шести значений только два имеют антонимы:

1.doing things; lively, ex: She takes an active part in local politics.


2.of the form of a verb whose subject is the person or thing that performs

the action (grammar), as in He was driving the car and the children have

eaten the cake. – passive.

Advance – v. Из шести значений только два имеют антонимы:

1.to move or put somebody/something forward, ex: He advanced his queen to

threaten his opponent’s king. – refreat.

2.to move an event forward to an earlier date, ex: The date of meeting has

been advanced from 10 to 3 June. – postpone.

Behind – prep. Из четырех значений только одно имеет


1.at or towards the back of somebody/something, ex: Who’s the girl standing

behind Richard? – in front of.

У остальных значений данного слова нет антонимов:

2.making less progress than somebody/something.

3.giving support to or approval of somebody/something.

4.responsible for starting or developing something.

Deep – adj. Из девяти значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.extending a long way from top to bottom, ex: a deep river box. – shallow.

Down – adv. Из девяти значений только четыре имеют


1.from the upright position to a lower level, ex: He bent down to pick up

his gloves.- up.

2.indicating a lower place or state, ex: The bread is on the third shelf

down. – up.

3.to be read from top to bottom, not from side to side, ex: I can’t do 3

down. – across.

4.away from a university (Brit), ex: going down at the end of the year. –


Dream – n. Из четырех значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.a sequence of scenes and feeling occurring in the mind during sleep, ex:

Good night – sweet dreams! – nightmare.

У остальных значений данного слова нет антонимов:

2.a state of mind in which the things happening around one do not seem


3.an ambition or idea.

4.a beautiful or wonderful person or thing.

First – adv. Из четырех значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.before anyone or anything else; at the beginning, ex: I’ll finish my work

first. – last.

У остальных значений данного слова антонимов нет:

2.for the first time. else.

3.to begin with.

4.in preference to something

For – prep.Из семнадцати значений только одно имеет антоним:

1.in defence or support of somebody/something, ex: I’m all for pubs staying

open all day. – against.

Особенно широко используются антонимичные пары в пословицах и

поговорках, в которых отражен многовековой социально – исторический опыт

народа, имеющие устойчивую, лаконичную, ритмически организованную форму и

поучительный смысл. Пословицы и поговорки – явление мысли, языка и

искусства. Главное в пословицах и поговорках не информация, заложенная в

ней, а художественный образ, смысловая двуплановость.

The time passes away but sayings remain.

Время проходит, сказанное остается.

After a storm comes fair weather, after sorrow comes joy.

После ненастья – вёдро, после горя – радость.

As you sow, so you reap.

Что посеешь, то и пожнешь.

Day and night are quickly in flight.

День да ночь – сутки прочь.

One may make up a soft bed, but still is will be hard to sleep


Мягко стелит, да жестко спать.

You needn’t be afraid of a barking dog, but you should be afraid

of a silent dog.

Не бойся собаки брехливой, а бойся молчаливой.

If youth but knew, if age but could.

Если бы молодость знала, а старость могла бы.

Better later than never.

Лучше поздно, чем никогда.

A chain is not stronger than its weakest link.

Цепь некрепче своего самого сильного звена.

Every flow has it ebb.

У каждого прилива есть отлив.

An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.

Один час утром стоит двух часов вечером.

There’d be no good fortune if misfortune hadn’t helped.

Не было бы счастья, да несчастье помогло.

Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.

Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня.

Breaking is not making.

Ломать – не делать.

Keep your moth shut and your ears open.

Держи рот закрытым, а уши открытыми.

A living dog is better than a dead lion.

Живой пёс лучше мертвого льва.

Bad luck often brings good luck.

Нет худа без добра.

One for all and all for one.

Один за всех и все за одного.

Further you hide it, closer you find it.

Подальше положешь – поближе найдешь.

The well – fed can’t understand the hungry.

Сытый, голодного не разумеет.

The morn is wiser than the evening.

Утро вечера мудренее.

Knowledge is light, ignorance is darkness.

Ученье – свет, а неученье – тьма.

Expensive and tasty, cheap and nasty.

Дорого, да мило, дешево, да гнило.

You started speaking with delight and finished with a sorry


Начали за здравие, кончили за упокой.

Native dogs are fighting here, foreign ones should not interfere.

Свои собаки дерутся, чужие не мешают.

Old friends are better than new ones.

Старый друг лучше новых двух.

Greet him according to the clothes, take leave according to what

he knows.

По одежке встречают, по уму провожают.

Таким образом, подводя итог главе, можно сказать, что исследование

примеров из художественной литературы, подтвердило тот факт, что антонимия

действительно является средством выражения категории «противоположность».

Мы выяснили, что антонимами могут являться как разнокоренные слова, так и

слова, образуемые при помощи отрицательных префиксов и отрицательного

аффикса. Кроме того, стал очевиден и тот факт, что не все значения

многозначных слов английского языка имеют анонимичную пару.


Итак, мы выяснили, что антонимия, которая понимается как довольно

широкий класс семантической корреляции, является средством выражения

категории “противоположность”. Антонимия – это явление при котором в

лексическом значении слов отражена их противопоставленность друг другу.

Главным критерием является постоянное, совместное их использование в

контекстах. Антонимия буквально пронизывает всю речь: от разговорной до

самых вершин поэтического и прозаического слова. Однако обычное понимание

антонимии предполагают противопоставленность одного из семантических

компонентов содержания слова, обозначающих одну и туже сущность. Но, в

принципе, возможно и более широкое понимание антонимии, как

противопоставления смысловых содержаний слов, обозначающих две разные

сущности, не по одному, а по многим семантическим признакам.


1.Апресян Ю.Д. Лексическая семантика. -М. Наука, 1974.-с.324 – 325.

2.Булаховский Л.А. Введение в языкознание.-М. Политиздат,1953.-


3.Гегель Г.В.Ф. Наука о логике.-М. Наука,1971.-Т.2,С.64.

4.Головенко Ю.А. Текстоструктуры современного английского языка.-

Смоленск: Гос. Пед. Инс – т. им. Маркса,1983.-С.66.

5.Дубровин Д.Н. Английские и русские пословицы и поговорки.-М.:


6.Есперсен О. Философия грамматики. М. Просвящение,1958. С186.

7.Жиляева М.И. Типология и функции лексических конверсивов.//Автореф.

Дис.конд.филол.наук. М. Ун – т дружбы народов им. П.Лумумбы,1991. Сс1 – 2.

8.Жукова Н.А. Частица NOT как актуализатор антонимических отношений в

лексике.//Проблемы изучения слова: семантика, структура, форма. Тверь,1990.

Сс10 – 14.

9.Зуева Э.В. Конверсивные отношения в лексике современного

языка.//Автореф. Дис.конд.филол.наук. М,1980. С10.

10.Зуева Э.В. Конверсивы в художественном тексте.//Функциональные

особенности лексики английского языка. Омск, 1986. Сс3 – 9.

11.Комиссаров В.Н. Словарь антонимов современного английского языка.

М. Изд – во “Международные отношения”,1964. Сс7 – 18.

12.Кондаков Н.И. Логический словарь справочник. М. Наука,1975. С486.

13.Кудрявцева В.А. Конверсные отношения в семантической структуре

деятеля.//Деривация в норме и терминосистемах. Владивосток,1990. Сс153 –


14.Кузьмин С.С. Шадрин Н.И. Русско – английский словарь пословиц и

поговорок . Санкт – Петербург. Мик.Лань,1996.

15.Львов М.Р. Словарь антонимов русского языка. М. Рус.язык,1984. Сс9

– 12.

16.Моисеев М.В. Средства выражения категории конверсивности в

английском языке.//Вопросы филологии и методики преподавания иностранных

языков. Омск,1998. Сс149 – 156.

17.Москальская О.И. Семантическая парадигматика и деривация.

М.Наука,1964. Сс7 – 18.

18.Родичева Э.И. К проблеме об антонимии.//Семантические и

фонологические проблемы прикладной лингвистики. М. Изд – во МГУ,1968. Сс284

– 296.

19.Фролова И.Т. Философский словарь. М. Политиздат,1991. С371.

20.Hornby. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English.

Oxford University,1995.

21.Шубина О.И. Условия актуализации антонимических отношений.//

Систематические взаимодействия языковых единиц. Л,1985. Сс143 – 149.

22.Ярцева В.Н. Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь. М. Советская

энциклопедия,1995. Сс35;234 – 235.

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.