–ефераты. Examination Topics






Examination Topics

1. Some people think that school years are the happiest days in peopleТs

lives. Can you say that you have been happy at school? Why?

School is the traditional place for acculturating children into our

national life. In the modern age, the role assigned to our schools is to

prepare children for the literate public culture. Some students like

school, others donТt; but they all study for eleven years and gain

knowledge by doing different tasks. For students who are doing well in most

subjects and who want to get higher education, school is an attractive

place. But those who are not successful at school, and who are always

pressed by teachers and their parents, school is boring and uninteresting.

I think that the most important role of school is giving knowledge. I can

say that my school gives such knowledge, and thatТs why IТm happy at

school. Most of my teachers have a lot of teaching experience; they

understand very well the difficulties of the learning process. They help us

to learn all subjects well. They also guide us and advise us on all aspects

of our study and life. They share their knowledge and experience with us,

and we respond with love.

If you want to study well, you must feel relaxed and happy with your

family, school and your social life. Your parents should understand you and

help you when you need their help. My parents usually help and support me

when I need it. We have our school psychologist who also helps us to

overcome difficulties and cope with our problems. The main purpose of our

school is to create a supportive and caring atmosphere for students.

The standard of education in our school is very high. IТm a rather good

student really. I donТt have many problems with the work; but I usually get

into trouble for talking, especially when I speak at the same time as the

teacher.

However I think that sometimes we have too much homework. Teachers and

parents insist that doing homework develops the studentТs ability to work

without assistance, or that additional work could help us complete our

education successfully. But I believe, in many subjects, homework is

totally unnecessary, because it doesnТt do me any good. I think itТs really

stupid to copy from a textbook, and there is no point in duplicating the

textbook. And if we could get rid of unnecessary homework, we would have

more time to take up hobbies and interests.

School is not only a place of education; it is a place where we develop our

relationships, increasing tolerance and respect to each other. At school we

can enjoy different activities and demonstrate our individual talents.

Everyone has an opportunity to take part in different performances at a

school or class party, or to take part in different sport competitions.

These activities help us with our education and relationships among our

classmates. We want to have harmony in our class and among our classmates,

but it is rather difficult to achieve. Of course, we try our best to do it,

and in many cases we overcome our problems and solve them. And only

sensitive teachers can help us, because boys and girls are not passive

lumps of clay; they are living, pulsating, developing, mysterious beings

who must be studied and understood before they can be taught in the true

sense.

So a teacher plays an important role in our education, and when we remember

our school years we usually remember our teachers, if they were fair and

intelligent or not. I think that IТm a lucky person Ц almost all my

teachers are very interesting and intelligent. When our teachers criticize

us, they follow such rules: they try to correct a studentТs action, not

him; they do not impress upon him that he has no abilities; they try to

contribute to the minds and souls of their students; they try to be a path

for their students to go through a dark forest of school rules. But I canТt

judge all teachers, because there are as many opinions how to treat a child

as there are people. Teachers must choose their methods themselves, but

they should remember that they influence and shape the studentТs opinion

about their school. As for me, I think that in our school almost all

teachers understand the students and become like parents to us. They

support us and care for us. IТm happy at my school and so are my

classmates.

2. If you want to continue your education, what kinds of institution will

you attends? Explain your choice.

At the age of fifteen, students in Russia have to make some important

decisions. Will they continue on at school? Or will they enter a lyceum or

a gymnasium? Of course, itТs not easy to make the right choice. In our

country a nine-year education is compulsory and after the ninth form

students have an opportunity to choose. To enter a university or a college

it is necessary to study two more years, and take five examinations on

finishing the eleventh form. To get a professional education, students have

to enter a technical college or a vocational school and study for three

years. Finally, they may finish their education, leave school, and get a

job. The choice depends on their likes and dislikes.

When choosing a place for future studies, itТs a good idea to consider a

number of factors. First of all, we should take into account our own

preferences and find out what our talents are. We can do this through

aptitude tests, interviews with specialities, and consulting reference

books on the subjects that interest us. Different types of schools, for

example lyceums and gymnasiums, often specialise in various fields. They

can offer a good choice of subjects that will be useful in a future

profession. Most of them are affiliated with universities and colleges and

help pupils to prepare for their entrance examinations.

I am not sure what I am going to do when I leave school. By the time I

finish school I will have already formed a much better idea of what IТd

like to do. But the problem is we have to decide which subjects to study

for university or college two years before we finish school.

ItТs not easy to make the right choice. There are a number of things we

could do. For some of the most interesting professions, like medicine, you

have to be very good at chemistry, and I am not much of a chemist. Although

my parents are doctors, I donТt seem to be very interested in caring for

others and helping them with their problems. I donТt think itТs the best

decision to follow in the footsteps of a parent or a relative if you are

not interested in this profession.

I have always wanted to be something like a computer programmer, because I

like computers and I am interested in knowing how computer programmes work.

Besides, I have an aptitude for working with figures and solving

mathematical problems. Maths is my favourite subject, and I am really good

at it. So I think I can work in a scientific or computational field. As far

as my personal qualities are concerned, I can say that IТm creative and

hard-working; I have good logical-reasoning and problem-solving skills.

Besides, IТm rather communicative and like to work in a team. So I feel I

can become a good specialist in programming.

To my mind the profession of a programmer has a lot of advantages. It is a

highly paid job, and it can offer many opportunities. I will be able to

work on the full range of development activities, such as analysis, design,

coding, testing and implementation. Computers are the most rapidly changing

sphere of modern technology. The next generation of computers will be able

to talk and even to think. We are living in the age of information. And I

think that the future will be just filled with computers. Today, in the USA

people work, go shopping, or even go on dates, sitting at their computers.

But to become a good specialist in computing, you should know a lot of

programming languages and application programmes. So after finishing school

it is necessary for me to enter a university or a college and to study

computer science. IТll have to take three entrance examinations: in Maths,

Physics and Literary composition. If I am lucky, IТll have the chance to

study interesting sciences, and to listen to the lectures of famous

professors.

However, itТs very difficult to pass entrance examinations. The school I am

now studying in is a comprehensive school with a standard curriculum.

Though the teachers here are very knowledgeable and experienced, my school

only offers general education. So after finishing the ninth form, I would

like to leave it and to enter a lyceum of information technologies. It

gives its pupils profound knowledge in Maths, Physics and other academic

subjects. Besides, pupils are offered a wide choice of elective subjects

connected with computers. They study different programming languages and

learn how to write programmes. The teachers there are friendly and well-

qualified. The lyceum is known for its academic excellence.

I hope my education at the lyceum will form a basis for my future

occupation. But it goes without saying that IТll need some extra knowledge

to pass my entrance exams at the university or college. That is why IТll

have to take preparatory courses in Maths and Physics. Anyway, I have to

get down to some hard work now, if I want to achieve my aims.

3. Choosing a profession is not an easy matter. What do you think can help

you to make the right choice?

What do you want to be when you grow up? We have heard this question many

times during our school years. Perhaps, it was difficult for us to give a

definite answer earlier. But now we understand that the time to choose our

future profession has come. Finishing school is the beginning of an

independent life for millions of school-leavers. Many roads are open before

us: technical schools, colleges and universities.

Centuries ago there were only a few jobs: people were farmers, bakers,

butchers or carpenters. Today there are thousands of different kinds of

jobs, and new ones are constantly appearing. No wonder that it is not an

easy thing to make the right choice.

When choosing a future career, we should consider different factors. In my

opinion, money is one of the most important factors when you make a choice.

There are highly paid jobs and low-paid jobs. For example, a businessman, a

president or a film star, are highly paid jobs. A worker, a doctor or an

engineer, are low-paid jobs. I think everybody wants to earn as much money

as possible. Training, promotional prospects and conditions should be also

taken into account.

On the other hand, itТs good when you get satisfaction from your job. It is

very important to choose a profession that suits your interests. In my

opinion, a job should be interesting and socially important. Some jobs are

considered to be more suitable for men and others for women. For example,

the professions of secretary or nurse are more suitable for women. A

lifeguard or a pilot are more likely the jobs for men. You should also

decide whether you want to work indoors or outdoors.

To make the right choice, you should take into account your traits of

character. It goes without saying that to become a good doctor you must be

patient, caring and kind. TeacherТs work requires love for children,

profound knowledge of subjects, and the ability to explain. A secretary has

to be efficient and careful in order to do her work quickly and accurately.

Salespeople need to be friendly and persuasive, to get people buy their

products.

There are so many people who influence us in choosing our occupation.

Parents and friends play a very important role in our choices.

My father works is a bisnessman. It is a highly paid job and it offers a

lot of opportunities. You can travel abroad and meet different people. My

father is a friendly person and he is easy to talk to. He thinks that I

must choose my future profession according to my taste and preferences. I

respect him but I want to become a programmer.

I have always been interested in computers. IТm rather communicative and

have good social skills. I have good analytical abilities and I am good at

problem-solving. Besides, I am good at English. English has become the

standard language for all kinds of international programs. To know English

today is absolutely necessary for every programmer.

But to become a good specialist in computing, you should know a lot of

programming languages and application programmes. So after finishing school

it is necessary for me to enter a university or a college and to study

computer science. IТll have to take three entrance examinations: in Maths,

Physics and Literary composition. If I am lucky, IТll have the chance to

study interesting sciences, and to listen to the lectures of famous

professors.

4. There are different ways of learning about the world: through the mass

media, books, travelling, visiting museums, meeting other people, etc.

Which ways do you prefer to learn about the world?

There are a lot of different ways of getting new information. In the past

the only way to learn about the world was traveling. The first travelers

were explorers who wanted to discover new lands. Nowadays, millions of

people travel around the world either for pleasure or on business.

Traveling has always been a part of peopleТs education. It teaches people

about the art and culture of different countries. It teaches them to be

understanding. Besides, you can improve your knowledge of foreign

languages. In my opinion, traveling is the most pleasant way of learning

about the world. ItТs always interesting to discover different ways of

life, to visit different museums, to try different foods, and to listen to

different kinds of music. In brief, when we travel, we can learn a lot of

things that we can never see and learn at home.

But to travel around the world you need a lot of money. That is why the

main source of information for millions of people is mass media. Mass media

includes newspapers and magazines, advertising and radio, and, of course,

television.

Television is a reflection of the modern world. It gives you an opportunity

to travel all over the world, to see different peoples, and learn about

their customs and traditions. Television keeps you informed about the rest

of the world. When you need immediate information about the latest world

events, you switch the TV on. There are always a great variety of

programmes on TV: current affairs programmes and documentaries, plays and

feature films, talk shows and TV games. A lot of people like TV news

because they can see everything with their own eyes. Besides, TV has the

power to educate and broaden our minds.

Some people think that the only way to be in the know of everything is to

read newspapers and magazines. If you get on a bus or catch a train during

the morning and evening Уrush hoursФ, when most people travel to and from

work, you will see a lot of people with their heads in a newspaper or a

magazine.

Newspapers are packed with the latest news, information, fashion and facts.

They cater to a variety of political views, interests and levels of

education. Papers are generally divided into Уquality papersФ, or

broadsheets, and Уpopular papersФ that are half the size of broadsheets.

But the size is not the only thing that makes them different. УQuality

papersФ are serious, with long, informative articles; while Уpopular

papersФ, known as УtabloidsФ, have a more sensational reporting style and

contain more human interest stories than news. The two most popular British

daily newspapers, The Sun and The Daily Mirror, are both tabloids. Tabloids

sell many more copies than broadsheets.

In Russia we also have these two types of newspapers. For example,

Izvestiya or Kommersant are broadsheets. They contain political, business

and cultural information. Such tabloids as Megapolis-Express and Express

Gazeta contain the latest gossip, sensations and crossword puzzles. People

choose a paper according to their tastes and preferences. Though newspapers

donТt react to events as quickly as TV, they usually provide us with extra

details, commentaries and background information.

There are also a lot of magazines and other periodicals. Whatever your

interest, there is likely to be a magazine about it Ц from sport, cookery,

and farming, to religion, computers, cinema and more. Young people below

the age of 18 do not buy newspapers; but they do buy magazines. Girls enjoy

magazines about pop music, clothes, fashion and make-up; whereas boys

prefer to read about sport, cars and computers. As far as I am interested

in fashions I enjoy reading Yes. It is a monthly magazine for girls

containing the latest information about our favourite pop, film and soap

stars, brilliant fashions and beauty, sports and romance. It approaches

interesting subjects with intelligence and good humour. Besides, there is a

lot of useful advice on various areas of life.

Still, many people prefer the radio. ItТs good to listen to the radio in a

car, or in the open air, or when you do something about the house.

Listeners can tune into all kinds of stations: pop or classical music,

news, sport or foreign radio stations. People can often call in and ask

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