–ефераты. Examination Topics






I spend my free time in the sport club. I go in for kung fu. Recently films

about kung fu have become very popular in Russia. This fighting itself is a

great art, the result of many years of hard work and self-discipline. The

man who made kung fu films famous was Bruce Lee. He used fists, elbows,

feet (never weapons) and moved as fast as lightning. I am rather good at

kung fu now, but I never use my skills to hurt anybody, unless it is

absolutely necessary. Now people know what Kung Fu is, and I think it may

become a sport of the future, because it develops up your personality, will

and nobility.

14. Young people are fond of different styles of music. What kinds are

popular now? What kind of music do you like? Why?

Can you think of a day without music? We can hear music everywhere: in the

streets and at home, over the radio and on TV, in the shops and in the

parks. People all over the world are fond of music. They listen to music,

they dance to music, they learn to play musical instruments.

But what is music? Specialists explain that music isnТt only a combination

of pleasant sounds. It is an art which reflects life. There are a lot of

different kinds of music. Some of them appeared long ago, and some are

modern. For example, folk music appeared long ago, but it is still alive.

There are many local performers, choirs and folk groups in Russia; but

perhaps the most famous singer is Nadezhda Babkina. Folk songs are very

tuneful and pleasant to listen to. Classical music is often associated with

the music of the past. However, this style also includes music being

written now, and we may speak of modern classical music. Rap is a modern

musical style where the singer speaks or shouts the words in time to music

with a steady beat. Such groups as Public Enemy or House of Pain are

leaders in this style.

Great Britain has produced more popular music stars than any other country.

Over the last 30 years rock and pop music have been very popular in

Britain. The Beatles, with their style of singing, eloquent and exciting,

is still one of the most popular groups. British groups often set new

trends in music. New styles, groups and singers continue to appear. Some of

the more recent pop groups are Dire Straits, Eurhythmics and Spice Girls.

Many of the new bands have been able to use the changes in technology to

develop their music. Computerised drum machines, synthesisers and other

electronic instruments are now just as popular as the piano and electric

guitars.

Tastes differ. So peopleТs musical interests range from pop and rock music,

which are extremely popular nowadays, especially among young people, to

classical music and opera.

My favourite style of music is pop music, because it is breathtaking and

full of energy. When I listen to pop music it makes me remember happy times

and forget the problems of everyday life. It helps me to relax when IТm

tired, and entertains me when IТd like to have fun. My favourite group is

Abba. It was formed in 1973 in Sweden. AbbaТs cheerful tunes made them

international pop stars and one of the most successful groups of the

seventies. Their most famous songs (УWaterlooФ, УMoney, Money, MoneyФ,

УKnowing Me, Knowing YouФ, etc.) often topped European charts. Though the

group doesnТt exist any more, it is still popular with people of all ages.

I canТt but admire their style of singing. I find it fascinating and

overwhelming. When I have free time I listen to their records. I also like

having background music while I am working.

I donТt mind listening to dance music, especially when I go to disco clubs.

This style of music is catchy and firey and I like catchy tunes. It makes

me more energetic.

ItТs a pity that many young people like to listen only to modern music. As

for me, I also enjoy listening to classical music. I find it tuneful and

appealing. Classical music is always a complex of emotions. It gives me

delight, pleasure and a sense of happiness. Some pieces of classical music

are really wonderful. Not long ago I listened to the First Piano Concerto,

composed by Tchaikovsky. The power of his music captivated me. The

impression was overwhelming.

The music I hate is heavy metal. I find it noisy and dreadful. When I

listen to this style of music it presents to my mind pictures of dark days.

Though some young people are fond of this style of music, it is not to

everyoneТs taste. To my mind, music too loud can destroy our ears. I am

indifferent to other styles of music. For example, I donТt mind listening

to jazz. Improvisation is an important part of this style, thatТs why a

jazz song may sound a little different each time it is played. I think that

jazz is a mixture of many different kinds of music, but I consider it a bit

complicated.

My mother and father approve of my tastes in music. Though they prefer to

listen to classical and Уbard musicФ, they think that, on the whole, modern

music is not too bad. My parents agree that each generation has its own

tastes.

It goes without saying that music plays a very important role in peopleТs

lives. It reflects our moods and emotions. Music appeals to our hearts and

transforms our feelings. It conquers our souls and enriches our minds.

Besides, listening to music is the perfect way to spend free time and not

to feel bored. You can hardly find a person who doesnТt like or need music,

who never sings or dances. Music is beauty in sounds, it is our magic

source of inspiration.

15. What are traditional British kinds of sports? Are they popular in

Russia? What kinds of sport, is your family interested in?

Englishmen are known to be great sports-lovers. One of the most popular

British games is cricket, which foreigners can hardly understand. There are

two teams of 11 players. Matches last from one to five days. It is played

all over the country in the summer. To many Englishmen cricket is both a

game and a standard of behavior. When they consider something unfair they

say УThat isnТt cricket.Ф Almost all Englishmen become fans when they watch

a traditional cricket match between the teams of Great Britain and

Australia, or New Zealand. England without cricket would be like bacon

without eggs.

Another game which attracts great attention is soccer (European football).

There are plenty of amateur and professional soccer clubs in every town.

Professional soccer is big business. The Cup Final played in London is the

culminating event of the football season. Rugby football is also very

popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs. ItТs a kind of English

football in which the players use their hands for carrying the ball. This

game is played by teams of 15 men with an oval ball and itТs often

considered to be a violent game.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Among many tennis

tournaments the most famous is the one in Wimbledon. Horse racing is also

extremely popular in Great Britain. The racing season includes five races.

The annual race for УDerbyФ is perhaps the most famous sporting event in

the whole world. Englishmen also go in for golf, baseball, hockey,

basketball, bowling, and badminton. Athletic sports, such as running,

jumping, rowing, swimming, boxing and gymnastics, are practiced at schools

and colleges. The annual Oxford-Cambridge boat race on the river Thames

attracts lots of people and is very popular. In Scotland, where there are

good conditions for winter sports, skiing is very popular.

Great Britain and America are the birthplaces of many sports. ThatТs why

many of them have English names. It is easy to understand how these games

were named. For example, baseball is played with a ball and bases.

Basketball is played with a ball and two baskets. The names for other

sports come from the name of the place where they were first played.

Badminton comes from the name of a piece of land owned by an English Duke.

The game was first played on the DukeТs land in 1873. Golf was first played

in Scotland, but its name comes from the Dutch word for a hockey club

Уcolf.Ф

Almost all these games are popular in Russia. Russian people even began to

play cricket. And plenty of bowling clubs appeared in our country. This is

because we can hardly overestimate the meaning of sport in our life and day-

to-day activities. The main purpose of going in for sports is to develop a

generation of strong and healthy people. Sports prevent us from getting too

fat, and brings up a harmoniously developed generation. Sometimes playing a

sport is connected with great risks. Besides, there are violent kinds of

sports and sportsmen and fans discuss whether these kinds of sports are

necessary.

In my family we prefer swimming. I began swimming at the age of six. I

think that swimming is something like music or languages, and thatТs why

itТs very good to start as early as possible if you want to be good at it.

There is no question that you can speak; there is no question that you can

walk; and there is no question that you can swim if you start at a very

early age. My parents also go to the swimming pool, but they began going in

for swimming when they were grown-ups. There are some sports which IТve not

had a chance to experience but would really like to. TheyТre mostly non-

competitive sports. I love the water very much and IТd really like to try

some more water sports. For instance, being pulled by a boat whilst wearing

water-skis would, IТm sure, be a fantastic experience. And IТd also like to

try surfing. I think thereТs no greater feeling on earth than riding the

top of a wave on a surfboard. IТd like to try it just to see. My parents

and I are great fans. We subscribe to a sports newspaper and like watching

nothing but football matches. We read the newspaper from cover to cover and

lie on the sofa watching sport competitions on television on Sunday.

16. Some people go in for sports, while others like to watch sports

competitions? Which is better: to watch or to participate?

The modern way of life, when people have little physical activity, use cars

instead of walking, watch television for many hours, and work on computers

is turning them into legless creatures. Although a lot of people are

interested in staying healthy, not many people do very much about it. Only

10 per cent of adults take part in sport more than twice a week.

The majority of people live in towns and cities, where space for team

sports is limited. To keep fit, most people take part in individual sports.

They usually go walking, swimming, cycling, or do aerobics. Taking part in

all of these sports is informal and casual. Most people just want to relax.

If they do aerobics or go swimming, they usually go to the sports centre;

but not many people join a sport club.

Some people argue that sports are not very useful. It takes a lot of energy

and time. As a result of going in for sports, people have broken legs and

arms and other injuries. Besides, it makes you unhappy when you lose. A lot

of people prefer to watch sports competitions rather than take part in

sports. Thousands of people go to the stadiums to support their favourite

teams and sportsmen. The most popular spectator sports are football, hockey

and figure skating. Most of the important competitions are televised, and

people enjoy watching sports programmes on TV. They neednТt buy tickets and

go to a stadium, especially in cold and rainy weather. But certainly

watching sports events and going in for sports are two different things.

In my opinion, people canТt do without sports. Sports play an important

part in our lives. I think sports help us in different ways. First of all,

it helps us to stay in good shape, to keep fit and to be healthy. It makes

people strong, fast and agile. What is more, sport builds character; it

teaches us to compete and practice sportsmanship. It makes us more

organised and better disciplined in our daily activities. Besides, it is a

good way to meet people and to make new friends.

Sports are an essential part of our everyday life. To have a healthy mind,

you must have a healthy body. But to be healthy, it is not necessary to

become a professional sportsman. You may go in for sports just for

pleasure, when you have free time. Some people jog every morning; some

follow fitness classes shown on TV. Young people usually put on their

roller-skates and skate in the streets and parks. A lot of young people

spend their holidays hiking; it doesnТt cost much, and it is a really good

way of getting away from crowds.

Physical education is an important subject at school. It helps pupils to

relax and to keep fit after a hard working day. Each school has sports

facilities. A lot of different competitions are usually held at school and

a great number of pupils take part in them. ThatТs why I think sports are

so popular in our country.

The most popular sports in Russia are football and hockey, skating and

skiing, track and field and swimming, tennis and basketball. It is not

always easy to decide which sport to take up. The aim of all sports

training is to improve fitness and skills, and to develop training

programmes that are both safe and effective. The important thing, however,

is that anyone who is not used to exercising should not do too much at the

beginning. Moreover, it is better to do a little regularly than a lot once

every two months. Among the be-nefits of regular exercise are a healthier

heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times, and less susceptibility to

various illnesses. Scientists believe that if you go in for sport on a

regular basis, it could even help you to live longer.

I enjoy many sports; but best of all I love swimming. I started to learn

when I was about seven years old. When I was younger I used to go swimming

three or four times a week. Now I have less free time, but a week never

goes by without my visiting the pool at least once. Sports help me to work

off my extra energy.

Swimming is an inexpensive and simple sport. You do not need any

complicated equipment. You just need a swimming costume or trunks and

perhaps a cap. You can swim in the sea or a river, or you can go to a

special swimming pool. I love swimming because it is a very good exercise

for the whole body. I would recommend it because it is so convenient to do:

you can do it when you like and for as long as you like.

17. What does a healthy way of life mean? How do you look after your

health?

People nowadays are more health-conscious than they used to be. They

understand that good health is above wealth.

To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our

health. In my opinion, smoking, and drinking too much alcohol, are the

worst ones. ItТs common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our

lives dramatically. Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung

diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. Besides, it makes your

teeth yellow and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent years smoking has

received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people smoke nowadays. Some

companies donТt employ people who are smokers. Smoking has been banned in

most public places because everyone agrees it does harm to our health. I

donТt smoke, because I donТt want to have unhealthy skin and teeth and die

young.

Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as skipping

meals, eating unhealthy food, or even overeating. Of course, they are not

quite as deadly as smoking or drinking alcohol, but they also affect our

health.

If we eat too much, weТll become obese, and obesity leads to serious health

problems. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee, and enjoy

pizzas and hamburgers. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food

makes you fat, that is why Americans are the fattest people in the world.

In recent years eating habits have undergone a change. People are

encouraged to eat less fat and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the

major causes of obesity and heart disease. High fibre and low fat foods can

now be found in all shops and supermarkets. Salads, beans, and fruit have

taken the place of steak and ice cream. The fashion for health food is

growing all the time.

Many people feel they are too fat, even if their doctors disagree. And a

lot of people try to improve their fitness. There are a lot of ways to lose

weight and avoid gaining it. Perhaps the most popular of them is following

a diet. If you want to lose weight, you should cut out snacks and desserts,

and cut down on fat. People have also become more aware of calories, the

energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat

every day; so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight.

This is called a calorie-controlled diet. Manufacturers are increasingly

producing special foods with fewer calories for slimmers.

But excessive dieting may be dangerous, too. Some people refuse to eat meat

as they consider it harmful. They say a vegetarian diet reduces the risk of

cancer and vegetarians live longer than others. I canТt agree with them,

because meat is an excellent source of good nutrition. In my opinion, itТs

wrong to put down a food simply because excessive amounts can cause health

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