–ефераты. Examination Topics






feel competitive, because we have different interests. IТm more academic

and heТs more artistic. But we are both fond of sport very much. We both go

to the swimming pool twice a week. It helps us to keep fit, it gives us

good stamina, and itТs good for our hearts and lungs. We hardly ever

quarrel or fight. My brother never sees me as being in the way. I think IТm

quite easy-going. IТm similar in personality to my mother. She is always

very friendly to all, although she can be quite critical of people. I like

to be friendly to the people around me, and I donТt normally like to let my

bad moods and anger inside me, come out and affect other people.

I donТt know if IТm particularly obsessive. I like to do different things

every day. I am fond of collecting different things. One day I collect toy

cars, another day I want to collect badges. But most of all I prefer

collecting stamps because itТs a family hobby. You can learn a tremendous

amount through stamps, especially about history. Stamps are a great way to

bring history alive. All the members of my family collect stamps and the

theme of our collection is history. It is a long-lasting hobby and who

knows Ц in 20 years or so it may have become an impressive collection that

can be appreciated and enjoyed by my own children too.

I have grandparents, my motherТs parents. They donТt live with us; but I

often visit them. They live a very routine life, but they like it. I canТt

put my finger on it, exactly, but there is some atmosphere in their house

like nothing has changed for twenty years. My parents are doctors and they

work in the hospital. They are very giving, caring persons, and always

consider those around them. They work very hard in their hospital and

really put all their energy in their work. They are very much in love, even

after years of being married and always caring for each other. My parents

have warm, friendly eyes and always express a spirit of goodwill towards

people. I love my parents very much and my ambition is to be a doctor too,

because I want to help people if they have some problems with their health.

I originally became interested in medicine during my 9th grade, when I

realized that my skills and my traits would serve me well in my future

career. Besides IТm good at Chemistry, Biology and History Ц they are my

favourite subjects. IТm not very good at English, but I understand that it

is one of the most important subjects now, and I try my best to improve it.

We have a pet. ItТs a dog. Her name is Sunny. Her mother is a Scotch

Shepherd dog. I am never lonely with my pet. She is a great favourite with

everyone in our family. All people admire her. She wears a good collar with

her name on it. She especially likes morning walks with my father.

My native city is Moscow. Many people associate Moscow with the Kremlin and

Red Square as the heart of the city. It is really the oldest historical and

architectural centre of Moscow and my favourite place in Moscow, because

itТs connected with the history of my country. Nowadays the Moscow Kremlin,

with all the beauty of the palaces and cathedrals, is a wonderful sight.

All these cathedrals have been converted into museums. Ivan the Terrible

Bell Tower, one of the most remarkable structures of the 16th century,

rises in the centre of the Kremlin. It unites all the Kremlin Cathedrals

into a majestic ensemble. One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the

Armoury Chamber. It was built in 1851. The famous golden cap of Monomach,

the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine II made of silver, and many

other precious historical items are exhibited there. So when you come to my

native city, IТll show you all the interesting and amazing sights of it.

11. People have various reading preferences. What do you like to read? What

is your favourite writer?

I think that we canТt live without books. There are a lot of different

kinds of books in the world, for example, thrillers, historical novels,

science fiction, adventure books and others. Most of them are with us

during all our life. Boys all over the world like reading adventure,

thrillers and horror stories, whereas girls prefer romances, historical

novels and poetry. Encyclopaedias, reference books and dictionaries help

pupils to do well at school.

All the members of my family like reading very much. My father often reads

newspapers and magazines. He thinks that it is the only way to be in the

know of everything. And my mother is keen on reading romances and modern

novels. For her they are more interesting than boring historical novels.

She agrees with Anatole France that Уhistory books which contain no lies

are extremely dullФ. But she wouldnТt mind reading about the life of well-

known people.

I enjoy reading very much. Most of all I like reading detective stories,

because they have interesting story lines and unusual endings. I am

particularly captivated by characters who conduct investigations.

I never believed there really were books that you couldnТt put down. I

changed my opinion when I started to read The Woman in White by Wilkie

Collins, an English writer. The book was written in the 19th century. ItТs

a very good detective story, with a bit of romance thrown in it. The book

is basically about mistaken identity. The main character in the story is a

young artist who goes up to the north of England to instruct two young

ladies. And he falls in love with Miss Fairlie, who looks very like the

woman in white. Finally they turn out to be identical twins. The author

brilliantly describes the adventures, love and fears of his heroes. He

really brings the characters to life. A good writer knows how to keep you

reading the book. In The Woman in White the readerТs interest is caught

from the very first page and there is suspense till the very end! This is a

great book and I would recommend it to anyone.

But my favourite writer is Agatha Christie. She is possibly the worldТs

most famous detective story writer. She wrote 79 novels and several plays.

Her books are translated into 103 foreign languages. Many of her novels and

short stories have been filmed. Her sales outnumber those of Shakespeare,

but her life was often lonely and unhappy.

She was born in 1890 in Devon. She didnТt go to school, but was educated at

home by her mother. During World War I, while she was working in a hospital

dispensary, she learned about chemicals and poisons, which proved very

useful to her in her later career. She wrote her first detective novel,

УThe Mysterious Affair at StylesФ, in 1920. In it she introduced Hercule

Poirot, the Belgian detective, who appeared in many subsequent novels. Her

other main detective was an elderly spinster called Miss Marple. Miss

Marple doesnТt look like a detective at all. This old lady always uses her

instinct and knowledge of human nature to investigate crimes.

In 1914 she married Archibald Christie, but the marriage was unhappy. It

didnТt last long, and they divorced in 1926. Agatha desperately wanted

solitude and developed very bitter feelings towards the media because the

newspapers had given her a hard time over her breakdown. She was determined

never to let them enter her private life again and she buried herself in

her work. On November 25, 1952 her play УThe MousetrapФ opened in London.

Today, over 50 years later, it is still running. It is the longest running

show in the whole world. Agatha Christie died peacefully in 1976. People

all over the world value this talented writer and consider her to be the

Queen of Crime.

I donТt mind reading adventure stories. I especially like to read about

characters who go through dangers to complete their mission. I think itТs

more interesting than reading dull historical novels. But I dislike poetry,

especially modern poetry. I find it too complicated. Sometimes I fail to

understand what poets mean.

I am sure that reading is an essential part of our life. Only in books can

you find answers to all your questions. Books can tell us a lot about the

modern world and ancient times. Besides, they can help us to explore new

ideas and expand our outlook. I completely agree that Уreading is to the

mind what exercise is to the body.Ф What is more, books teach us to be kind

and honest. While reading we learn how to solve our problems and to make

people happy. And I think that reading is a perfect way to spend free time

and not to feel bored. Books must be our friends during all our life.

12. Television is much spoken about nowadays. It has both good and bad

points. What are your arguments for and against watching TV?

It goes without saying that television plays a very important part in

peopleТs lives. ItТs a wonderful source of information and one of the best

ways to spend free time and not to feel bored. Television viewing is by far

the most popular leisure pastime. For example, in Britain over 99 per cent

of British homes have a TV, and the average person watches Уthe boxФ 26

hours a week. ItТs not surprising, because TV channels show a great variety

of programmes: documentaries and current affairs programmes, feature films

and comedies, soaps and police series, concerts and talk shows.

There are four TV channels in Britain: BBC 1, BBC 2, ITV and Channel 4. BBC

1 and BBC 2, the two state channels, do not show adverts. ITV and Channel

4, the two independent channels, do show adverts. BBC 1 and ITV tend to

broadcast popular programmes: sports programmes, recent films, news, game

shows, childrenТs programmes and soaps. BBC 2 and Channel 4 show programmes

which usually attract much smaller audiences: TV plays, classical concerts,

foreign films and programmes for minority groups.

Russian television has between 10 and 15 channels, which show all kinds of

programmes: news and sports programmes, talk shows and quizzes,

documentaries and feature films, soaps and police series, comedies and

concerts.

Thanks to satellites, TV viewers can increase their options and watch TV

from different countries. Conventional television has to struggle to retain

its audience, as people switch over to cable viewing, satellite TV, or

renting video cassettes.

Television is a reflection of the modern world. It gives you an opportunity

to travel all over the world, to see different people and learn about their

customs and traditions. Television keeps you informed about the rest of the

world. And of course, it helps you to escape from everyday problems.

A lot of people usually relax watching soaps Ц TV serials which dramatise

their charactersТ daily life. Their story lines are entertaining, but often

unbelievable. I donТt think that they show life realistically; but to many

people, the characters in the weekly TV serial shows have become more

important than real people.

As for me, I prefer watching different quizz shows. ThatТs why my favourite

TV programme is УWho Wants to Be a Millionaire?Ф It is shown twice a week,

and lasts about an hour. The programme is now hosted by Maxim Galkin. It is

a game show where the player is asked different questions. If the answers

are correct, the participant gets a lot of money. But if he is wrong, he

loses everything. I particularly enjoy watching this programme, because the

questions are always very interesting and they help me to expand my

outlook. Besides, itТs a perfect way to be in the know about everything. I

find this programme clever and informative and try not to miss it.

Of course, not everything shown on TV is made in good taste. There are

badly-written programmes which contain unnecessary bad language and

violence. The strange thing is that neither politicians nor producers like

to admit that watching violence on TV leads to greater violence on the

streets.

Many people admit that the quality of television could be better. They

would prefer to see fewer soap operas and crime series, and more history,

drama, and science. One reason for the poor quality of programmes is

advertising. Not all people like watching commercials. They find ads silly

and boring. As for me, I donТt take advertising seriously. On the one hand,

advertisements help people choose the best products and get the best value

for their money. But on the other hand, they show life unrealistically and

give false information. Besides, in adverts all people seem to be happy

consumers, all kids seem to be healthy and well off. But this is not true

at all. What is more, I find it very annoying when a film stops at the most

interesting moment. Nevertheless, I am not against commercials on TV,

because television companies earn their money from advertising.

Another thing I would like to complain about is the amount of smoking in

the films that are shown on TV. Smoking is often shown as a very УcoolФ

thing to do Ц making young people much more likely to copy what they see,

and take up smoking themselves.

Some people say that television is a terrible waste of time. Of course,

there are TV addicts who canТt drag themselves away from the box. They

watch TV for hours without choosing programmes, and spend time in front of

television which they could spend talking to their friends and family. In

this case, television makes them really waste time. But on the contrary, if

we watch TV for an hour a day, to find out what is happening in the world

or to relax, then television is really useful.

In short, television does have its good points. Many of the broadcast

programmes are educational and can help with schoolwork. A good soap-opera

or a comedy is a source of relaxation for many people. Television also

provides jobs for thousands of people. So I think it is not the TV itself

which is to blame for the bad effects it has, but the fact that people do

not know how to make the best use of it.

13. What are the most popular free time activities for British and Russian

teenagers? What activities do you like? Why?

Britain has recent by been described as a Уleisure society.Ф This is

because there are a great variety of leisure pursuits. Young people

generally go out on Friday or Saturday nights to a disco, to a concert or

to a pub. In recent years going out for a meal or getting a take-away meal

have become popular too. During the past years there is a great increase in

keeping fit and staying healthy. A lot of teens started running, jogging

and going to different fitness clubs in their spare time. Aerobics classes

and fitness clubs opened in every town, and the number of recreation

centres greatly increased. Indoor pools, with their wave-making machines,

water slides and tropical vegetation, have became very popular.

And the same is true in Russia. A lot of teens go in for different kinds of

sport. Sport helps them to feel as fit as a fiddle. In both countries there

are special programmes for problem teenagers, such as a high-risk

activities, for example they are taught to jump out of aeroplanes. But

despite the increase in the number of teens participating in sport, the

majority of young people still prefer to be spectators. They prefer to be

couch potatoes. Watching sports on TV is a popular leisure activity, as is

going to football matches on Saturday. Cinemas have been redesigned with

four or more screens, each showing a different film at the same time, and a

lot of teens like going to the cinemas too.

The young generation is fond of communication. There are many available

methods of communication nowadays, and the most popular one is computers. A

lot of teenagers spend plenty of time working on computers. The Internet

seems really good fun. You may send e-mails to friends from different

countries and get their answers instantly. You even may talk to them. It is

easy and quick. A lot of teenagers have mobile telephones, so they can

always be contacted, if they keep their telephone switched on, at any time

of the day or night, or tend text messages.

A lot of teenagers in both countries are crazy about animals. They race

them, train them and breed them. They like to hear stories about them on

television programmes and they like reading books about them. Many teens

have a pet animal. It could be a dog, a cat, a goldfish, a bird or a small

furry animal like a hamster. Looking after and being kind to their pets is

very important for teens. Why are teens so interested in animals? Perhaps

itТs because they are rather shy in their heart of hearts. One of my

friends says: УI can say anything I like to my dog, but she never thinks

IТm silly.Ф

There are plenty of other kinds of activities, such as travelling, visiting

historical places, babysitting, delivering newspapers, putting together

jigsaw puzzles, reading, going to different museums, skateboarding, going

fishing, hitchhiking, shopping, helping people in need, joining a computer

club and others. We can say УSo many teens; so many kinds of activities.Ф

Now some words about me. I am fifteen and I am a computer addict. I am fond

of communication with other teens. ThatТs why I have a lot of friends in my

and other countries. We send messages from one computer to another one

using e-mail; we have on-line conversations. I am a member of the computing

club and I spend much time there. Of course, itТs rather expensive, but my

parents understand me and give me enough money to pay for my computer club.

And I think that my hobby will be useful in my future profession. Besides,

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