–ефераты. Examination Topics

problems. Consumed in moderate amounts, meat is perfectly good for our


To my mind, the only way to stay healthy and to keep fit is by going in for

sports. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart,

stronger bones, quicker reaction times and more resistance to various

illnesses. Besides, you can eat and drink as much as you want because you

are burning it all off.

To be healthy, it is also very important to spend a lot of time in the open

air. It is useful to go for a walk before going to bed, or to air the room.

I think it is very important to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary to

take care of your health. Being fat, in fact, can cause real problems. It

is harder for fat people to get a good job, or even to make friends. If you

want to do well, you must be thin. ThatТs why I go in for sports on a

regular basis. I have been doing aerobics for three years and I feel great.

I am not enthusiastic about strict dieting, but I try to eat only low-fat

food, and fruit and vegetables which are rich in vitamins.

Personally I believe that regularity in life promotes our health. Sleeping

eight or nine hours, getting up early, regular meals, a healthy diet and

going in for sports is really a good way to live.

18. The problems of ecology are very important now. Which problem is the

most urgent, in your opinion? What can you and the people around you do to

protect the planet?

Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the modern world,

and environmental protection has become a vital necessity for all people.

Our planet is in serious danger. One of the most important environmental

problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Industrial

pollution has made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and

even seas have become poisonous. Thousands of fish die every year as a

result of the illegal dumping of waste in rivers by factories all over the


Lake Baikal is one of the worldsТ largest and most beautiful lakes. It

contains a rich variety of fish and plants, including 1,300 rare species

that do not exist anywhere else in the world. However, they are being

killed by massive industrial waste, which some factories still pour into

the lake every day. A few years ago people thought that the supply of clean

water was unlimited. Now clean water is scarce, and we are beginning to

respect this precious resource. We must protect the clean water that

remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren.

Air pollution is another important problem. In hundreds of cities and towns

the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the

admissible level. Every day a huge number of plants and factories emit lots

of harmful substances into the atmosphere of big cities. The great increase

in the use of motor cars in the last quarter of the twentieth century has

caused an increase in a new kind of air pollution. Pollution from factories

and cars poison the air we breathe, and is the main reason for the

greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Acid rain can damage life in lakes and rivers and destroy forests. The

greenhouse effect may also have disastrous consequences for our planet. It

is already affecting several areas of the world with unusual weather

causing droughts or heavy storms. The worldТs temperature is going up and

the climate is changing. Cutting down on emissions from large combustion

plants and exhaust fumes from vehicles would help solve the problem. I

think we should try and use alternative energy, such as solar energy and

wind energy, and design plants and cars that run on electricity, a much

cleaner fuel than petrol.

One of the most alarming environmental problems is depletion of the ozone

layer, which protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the

sun. Because of the ozone holes, the dangerous rays get through the

atmosphere, causing skin cancer and other serious diseases. Many scientists

think that these ozone holes are the result of air pollution.

In my opinion, the most urgent ecological problem today is the

environmental safety of nuclear power stations. Nuclear pollution canТt be

seen, but its effects can be terrible. We all know how tragic the

consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. Nuclear waste also endangers

peopleТs lives. People all over the world protest against nuclear tests and

nuclear weapons. If we do not take any action, the possibility of a global

nuclear disaster is very real.

Of course, we canТt help mentioning such burning issues as destruction of

tropical forests and wildlife, overpopulation, and shortage of natural

resources. The list of serious ecological problems could be continued.

Today environmental issues are much spoken and written about on TV, radio,

and in the newspapers. If people want to survive, they must do their best

to solve these problems. Fortunately, itТs not too late to save our planet.

We understand that our environment is not just our home town, but the whole

earth. The protection of the environment requires the cooperation of all

nations. Governments should take measures that will help improve the


There are a lot of environmental groups and international organisations,

whose main goal is to strengthen cooperation among environmentalists from

different countries. The most famous of them is Greenpeace, which combines

the peopleТs efforts for peace with the huge and ever mounting movement for

nature conservation. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is the name of another

international organisation that appeared in 1961. It has created or given

support to National Parks on five continents.

However, there are a lot of simple things we should all do to stop the

destruction of the environment. First of all, we mustnТt drop litter in

public places. Besides, we shouldnТt dump our rubbish without thinking

which things, such as bottles and paper, can be recycled. We must stop

using aerosol sprays, because the stuff they contain destroys the ozone

layer. We should take care of birds and animals. We can help to plant trees

and create parks for endangered species. We can clean rivers and canals and

create footpaths. But first of all we must change peopleТs attitude towards

the environment.

If we take action now, there might be some hope for the future. If we do

nothing, we are heading for disaster!

19. People set up different organizations for various purposes. What do you

know about these organizations? Are you a member of any organization? Which

organization would you join? Why?

The 20th century is characterized by the creation of international

organizations: only a small number of the international organizations now

in existence were formed before 1850, and about 90% were organized in the

period 1900Ц1956. In the 1980s there were more than 2500 international

organizations, of which about 750 were formed after World War II. This

number included more than 130 intergovernmental agencies, of which the most

notable were the United Nations and its affiliates.

The name United Nations was devised by United States President Franklin D.

Roosevelt and was first used in the УDeclaration by United NationsФ of 1

January 1942, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments

to continue fighting together against Germany, Japan and Italy. The Charter

of the United Nations was signed by 51 states on 26 June 1945. This day is

now celebrated each year throughout the world as United Nations Day. Russia

is a member of the United Nations.

A specialized agency of the United Nations is UNESCO (United Nations

Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). It was founded in 1946.

It promotes international collaboration in education, science and culture.

Education is UNESCOТs main activity. The organization attempts to assist

and support national efforts of member states in eliminating illiteracy,

training teachers, developing educational institutions and extending free

education. UNESCO also works to study, develop and promote cultural

heritage and protect historic monuments and the natural environment. UNESCO

assists and supports the efforts of member states through conferences,

seminars and publications, through the promotion of research and exchange

of information and knowledge.

Now IТd like to tell you about the World Health Organization (WHO). It

began its activities in 1948. It is a specialized agency designed to

further international cooperation for improved health conditions. The major

function of the WHO is to establish measures for the control of epidemic

diseases. This consists of mass campaigns promoted by WHO against

communicable diseases. The major function of WHO is nursing concerned with

maternal and child health. It also assists educational programmes for

nurses and assistants. WHO is coordinating an international effort against

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as well as the current threat of


Another medical organization is the Red Cross and Red Crescent. The Red

Cross is an humanitarian agency with national affiliates in almost every

country in the world. The Red Cross movement began in 1863. Its peacetime

activities include first aid, accident prevention, water safety, training

of nursesТ aids and mothersТ assistants and maintenance of maternal and

child welfare centres, clinics, blood banks and numerous other services.

The Red Cross is the name used in Christian countries; the Red Crescent is

the name used in Muslim countries.

Greenpeace is an international nongovernmental organization dedicated to

preserving endangered species of animals, preventing environmental abuses

and taking care of wildlife. Greenpeace was founded in 1971 in Vancouver,

Canada. It brought together people concerned with terrible abuses to the

environment. The organization has a small staff and relies largely on

voluntary staffing and funding. Greenpeace also campaigns:

Ц for stricter control over chemical waste disposal on land;

Ц to stop all nuclear weapons tests;

Ц to close down nuclear power stations and nuclear reprocessing plants;

Ц to stop acid rain and protect the atmosphere;

Ц to reduce the trade in endangered species products;

Ц to declare Antarctica a World Park Ц free of military and industrial

exploitation, and so forth.

Today it is a global organization with national offices in 27 countries;

one of them is in Russia (since 1992).

There are also youth organizations, because the main aim of society is to

prepare young people for responsible roles in the adult world and to

provide constructive outlets for energies of young people. Some

organizations such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts or Guides, and Young MenТs

Christian Association and Young WomenТs Christian Associations, have spread

all over the world. The Boy Scout movement was founded in Great Britain in

1908. In 1910 the Girl Scout movement was also founded in that country.

There are about 1,300,000 boys and girls in them. The movement of the Boy

Scouts has its aim to help a Scout (a boy from 8Ц18) to develop into a good

man and a useful citizen. He must be able to handle sails, to use a

compass, to lay and light a fire outdoors, he must know first aid and

develop his interest in music, literature, drama, arts and films. A Scout

is a friend to animals, heТs Уclean in thought, word and deedФ. He must

obey the Scout Law.

As for me, IТm not a member of any organization. But if I had chance, I

would become a Scout, because I like the aims of this organization and the

ways they are achieved.

20. Growing up can cause problems. Do you have any problems with your

friends, your parents and other people around you? How do you cope with

these problems?

ItТs hard not to see that teenagers nowadays have a lot of problems. One of

the real problems is having no close friend. Several days ago I had a best

friend, but now I donТt. My friend was much more to me than just a person

with whom I communicated. We were as thick as thieves. We helped each other

to survive and got along well. But some days ago we quarrelled, and now IТm

at a loss what to do. Fortune turned its back on me and I feel very lonely.

I canТt say that my parents donТt understand me, they try to support me;

but I think only time can heal me. Some young people are just sure that

their parents donТt want to understand them. ItТs a very serious problem.

IТm sure that this point of view is absolutely wrong.

Psychologists believe, parents-child conflicts cannot be avoided in a

society that is undergoing rapid change. In our society youngsters are at

odds with their parents on a wide range of issues, from how late they can

stay up, to whom they should marry. ItТs called a generation gap. But I

think our parents are people whom we can trust. In most cases teens donТt

understand their parents and become very nervous. When this happens, itТs

time to say to yourself УstopФ, and try to find in your parents more

positive than negative traits. Our parents should understand one thing,

that todayТs children will become tomorrowТs society. So they should try to

understand the child; they should find out about teen problems and help

solve them.

The other very important problem is our school life. Teens are often under

pressure in many ways at school Ц they are supposed to be УmachoФ Ц good at

school subjects, able to stand up for themselves without crying. If they

canТt, they are УwimpsФ, and often children will tease and bully them,

especially at school. But all children are different Ц they have different

needs and talents, likes and dislikes. Teens are not just УmachosФ and

УwimpsФ, they are rebels and conformists, extroverts and introverts. Our

teachers and our parents should assure us that all these types of people

are good, and it will reduce a lot of our problems.

TeenagerТs Problems

There are so-called Уproblem teenagersФ, who take drugs. A large number of

teens use them very often. They are drug addicts. I donТt have such friends

and I think that there should be special programmes to solve this problem.

Drugs Destroy Lives

Another problem is connected with biorhythms. Not all people know what it

is, and they begin to laugh at you and can offend you, when sometimes you

are all fingers and thumbs, when you are accident-prone, or when your

temper seems to be on a short fuse. It is because we all have an internal

Уbody clockФ which regulates the rise and the fall of our bodiesТ energies

and itТs called biorhythms. So our teachers, parents and classmates should

understand it and not pay attention to it because itТs the law of our life

and nature.

My other serious problem is to enter a good university and find a good job

afterwards. But unemployment rates are extremely high Ц even qualified

people with great knowledge canТt find something good. But in spite of that

I hope for the best.

I always want to impress people. But the first impression we make almost

fully depends on what we wear and how we wear it. Manners and speech are

noticed next and character only later. Many teens have the same taste. They

like to keep up-to-date with the changes in our society. They like to wear

clothes which look good and which you feel comfortable in. Being in fashion

makes you feel good, in tune with the world you live in. But when you are

at school it is important to wear the right clothes, even formal ones, and

not to dress up. I understand it, but some of my classmates donТt. They

like to shock their teachers and parents, and provoke them, and thatТs why

they have some problems at school. So you should have some Уclothes senseФ

to know and feel the types of things that are your style in formal

situations (when you are at school) and at parties.

As for me nowadays, I try to cope with all my problems alone, or with the

help of my parents. My parents are real friends and they understand me and

try to help me or give advice.

So if someone denies all of the problems teenagers have, they are not being

honest. Teens have a lot of problems. But the first thing we have to think

about is the future weТre building for ourselves and our children. The

better we are now, the better we understand one another, the better our

place will be when we grow up.

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