–ефераты. Examination Topics






questions about everything from cooking or car repair to politics or

health. Callers often get a chance to give their opinions on the air.

Besides, radio has fresher news than newspapers. They inform every half

hour.

The Internet has recently become another important source of information.

It is a computer system that allows millions of people around the world to

receive and exchange information about almost everything. The main use of

the Internet is to find information Ц for your schoolwork or job, or just

to find out more about your hobbies, sports or current events. All the

latest information is available to you in your home, at any hour of the day

and night. ItТs much faster and easier to surf the net in search of

information from all over the world than to travel to libraries in dozens

of countries.

However, the real world of the Internet may not be as perfect as it seems.

With so much information available, finding what you want can take you

hours. Multimedia web pages with photographs are attractive, but they make

downloading slow and boring. Besides, there is too much advertising instead

of real information.

With so many modern forms of finding information, such as radio, TV and the

Internet, people read fewer books, newspapers and magazines. Nowadays, most

people consider television their most important source of information, and

a majority ranks television as the most believable news source. In my

opinion, we canТt say exactly which source of information is the best. It

depends on what kind of information you need. However, I donТt think we

should forget the educational value of reading a good book.

5. Travelling is one of the ways of discovering new countries. What

attracts tourists to Russia? What would you show your foreign friends in

your home town?

Millions of people all over the world are fond of travelling. They travel

to see other countries and continents, to discover different ways of life,

to meet different people and to practise foreign languages. It goes without

saying that travelling broadens the mind. While travelling we can see and

learn a lot of things that we can never learn staying at home and watching

TV or reading books. ThatТs why a lot of foreign people come to Russia to

get acquainted with Russian culture, with Russian customs and traditions.

Russia has always been a country of mystery attractive for foreigners.

There are lots of villages and towns in Russia famous for their specific

crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in

Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit Russia to enjoy the typical Russian

log houses, decorated with wood carvings.

Tourists like to visit old Russian towns and cities famous for their

ancient architecture. They are especially attracted by Russian orthodox

cathedrals, churches and monasteries. One of the most interesting old

cities in Russia is Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great, as it was called in

the old times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied art

created over the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the city on

the Volkhov River date back to the year of 859. Now Novgorod has expanded

far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial and cultural

centre, located on the busy highway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The focal point of the city is the Detinets, or the Kremlin. The present-

day Kremlin stems largely from the 15th century. Several alterations made

in the 16th and 17th centuries were minor and did not affect its

appearance. NovgorodТs contribution to the development of Russian culture

is outstanding. No other city excels Novgorod in the number of ancient

monuments of architecture. The Novgorod Museum of History, Architecture and

Art shows visitors the history of the medieval Novgorod. Its artistic value

lies primarily in its collection of medieval icon painting.

There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit

the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and

cultural centre. They dream of visiting Red Square, which is called the

heart of Moscow. Perhaps, the most ancient monument of Red Square is St.

BasilТs Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is a real

masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.

If you come to Moscow for the first time, you should by all means visit the

Kremlin, which is very impressive. On the territory of the Kremlin you can

see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin

Palace, the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in

the world. The tallest Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the

symbol of the country.

If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate you will come to the

Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by

the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the

Alexandrovsky Gardens, behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, you will see

Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome.

Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals

in and around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful palaces, old

mansions and monuments in Moscow.

There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are the

Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the

ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which

houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other

unique museums in Moscow are the State History Museum, the All-Russia

Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the Polytechnical Museum and

many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres, too. The best-known of them

is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very

popular.

Another interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia Exhibition

Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition Centre is

situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the Exhibition

Centre is its fountains. The УFriendship of the NationsФ and the УStone

FlowerФ fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is a large

cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitions

and fairs are held.

One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and a journey

by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as if youТre

underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design

of the stations, which are more like palaces. No two stations are alike;

most of them have their own appearance.

Of course, every foreigner should visit St. Petersburg, the second largest

city in Russia and one of the most splendid cities in the world. It was

founded in 1703 by Peter the Great at the mouth of the Neva River. Now it

is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.

St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is something

to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, St. IsaacТs Cathedral, the Peter-and-

Paul Fortress, and the Admiralty Building attract thousands of tourists

from every corner of the world. PetersburgТs many museums house some of the

worldТs most famous art collections. The Hermitage and the Russian Museum,

for example, contain the richest collections of pictures in the world.

The city is called the Northern Venice, because there are 65 rivers,

branches and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. ItТs also

famous for its beautiful white nights.

There are a lot of Hero-cities in our country. And I would recommend that

my foreign friends visit one of them. Volgograd is a legendary city,

because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great and glorious victory

over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during the war, but now

it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the great Russian

river Volga. The symbol of Volgograd is the Mamaev Hill. It was the centre

of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad. Now there is a great

memorial there. Besides, you can visit the Stalingrad Battle Panorama

Museum, which is situated on the bank of the Volga River. The centre of

Volgograd is the Square of the Fallen Heroes. In the middle of it there is

a granite obelisk and the common graves of the heroes of the Civil War and

the Great Patriotic War. At the foot of the memorial you can see the

Eternal Flame. Now Volgograd is a big industrial and cultural centre.

There are a lot of other interesting towns and cities in Russia, which are

all worth visiting.

6. Every country is special. What comes to your mind, when you think of the

UK and its people?

The British Isles is the name for a collection of about 4000 islands,

including Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain, known as Britain or GB,

is the name for the largest of the Islands in the British Isles. It

includes England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom or UK is a

political term which includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern

Ireland. All of these countries are represented in Parliament in London,

and the abbreviation UK is used on most official documents produced by

Parliament. Everybody from the UK is British, but be careful: only people

from England are English. People from Wales think of themselves as Welsh;

people from Scotland as Scottish; people from Northern Ireland as either

British or Irish.

Britain is split into counties. The word county describes an area with its

own local government. County councils are elected to run things, such as

education, housing, town planning, and rubbish disposal. They look after

things like roads, libraries and swimming pools.

The British flag, known as the Union Jack, is a combination of three flags:

the Saint AndrewТs cross, the Saint PatrickТs cross and the Saint GeorgeТs

cross.

The Saint PatrickТs cross is the former flag of Ireland. Saint Patrick is

the patron saint of Ireland. He was born about AD 390. He converted the

Irish to Christianity. Saint PatrickТs Day is celebrated on 17 March. The

symbol of Northern Ireland is a shamrock and a red hand.

The Saint GeorgeТs cross is the English flag. Saint George is the patron

saint of England. He was a soldier famous for saving the Princess Cleolinda

from being eaten by a dragon. Saint GeorgeТs Day is celebrated on 23 April.

The symbol of England is a red rose.

The Saint AndrewТs cross is the Scottish flag. Saint Andrew, a fisherman,

was one of the 12 apostles who followed Jesus Christ. Paintings of Saint

Andrew often show him being crucified on an X-shaped cross. Saint AndrewТs

Day is celebrated on 30 November. He is the patron saint of both Scotland

and Russia. The symbol of Scotland is a thistle.

The Welsh flag shows a dragon. Saint David, the patron saint of Wales,

converted Wales to Christianity and established the Welsh church. Paintings

of Saint David show him with a dove on his shoulder. Saint DavidТs Day is

celebrated on 1 March. The symbol of Wales is a daffodil or leek.

London is the capital city of England and the UK. It is a place where the

invading Romans first crossed the River Thames. They built a city and

called it Londinium. This original site of London is now called the City of

London. London manages in a unique way to reflect the past and, at the same

time, to live a life of a modern city. The saying УWhen a man is tired of

London, he is tired of lifeФ means that you canТt be bored in London. There

are hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums in London.

As for me, IТm fond of history and IТve read a lot about English kings and

queens. IТd like to visit all places in London which are connected with

Royal London, such as Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, Whitehall and

Trafalgar Square, St PaulТs Cathedral, and the Tower of London. And IТd

like to visit places which are not in London, such as Windsor Castle, the

QueenТs house in Greenwich, the Palace of Holyrood house in Edinburgh and

other places in the UK which are connected with the Crown. The UK is famous

for its castles such as Edinburgh Castle and Leeds Castle and others, and

IТd like to see them with my own eyes. Another place which is worth seeing

is Madam TussaudТs Museum of Waxworks. This museum consists of several

halls with wax images of outstanding political characters, poets and

writers, world-famous film stars and musicians. Then IТd like to see one of

the wonders of the world Ц the famous Stonehenge. Every year thousands of

young people go to Stonehenge to take part in the midsummer Druid festival.

I wish I were there.

Palace of Holyrrodhouse in Edinburgh

In the House of Lords, the Chancellor sits on a sack of wool. This

tradition comes from old times when sheep wool made England rich and

powerful. In the House of Commons there are two rows of benches: one row is

for the government and the other one is for opposition. There is a red line

in the carpet in front of each Уfront benchФ. The person who is speaking is

not allowed to step across it. It is also a tradition from old days, when

that division prevented the two parties from fighting during the debates.

Even the Legislation of the country is traditional. It includes many laws

that havenТt been changed for centuries. Other traditional features of

Great Britain are the numerous clubs that unite people of various

interests; and the pubs, the local beer halls, where Englishmen like to

spend their time talking, discussing traditional matters: politics, sports,

and weather, over a glass of beer. The British have a reputation of being

conservative, for having established values without questioning their

validity. They drive on the left side of the road and use double-decker

buses. They stick to their own measurement system and continue to measure

distances in miles and yards (not in kilometres and metres). They buy

cheese in pounds and ounces, milk in pints, petrol in gallons.

Fire-place

English people are famous for their habit of politeness. It is considered

polite to give up oneТs seat to a woman who is standing, to open a door for

her, carry things for her, and so on. Most British people expect the person

in front of them to hold the door open for them. People think you are rude,

if you donТt do this. English people are very reserved. This means that

they donТt talk much to strangers, and donТt show much emotion. A reserved

person never tells you anything about himself. But the people of the North

and West of Britain are much less reserved than those of the South and

East. Most British people queue when they are waiting for a bus or waiting

to be served in a shop. But during the rush hour, when a bus or train

arrives, people often push forward to make sure they get on. This is called

jumping the queue. British people keep their old traditions and are very

proud of them. They are famous for their sense of humour. English people

show great love for animals. And, of course, English people are fond of

sports. Many continentals think life is a game; the English think cricket

is a game. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of

behaviour. When they consider something unfair, they say УThat isnТt

cricketФ.

Cricket

The traditional love of English people for tea is well known. They like to

drink tea with milk. They have their five-oТclock tea not only at home or

in offices, but also in tea-rooms and tea-shops, which can be found in

every town.

A nation is born from its land, its history, its art, its traditions and

its institutions. These things work together to make people what they are.

But above all, a nation is made up of people, and although there are things

they all share, all of those people are different. We can say there is

still a УBritish nation,Ф and one of the most characteristic features of

Englishmen is their traditions, which they respect, and which they have

kept for centuries. The traditions donТt only accumulate the experience and

wisdom of many generations, but they bring some stability into the rapidly

changing world.

7. Each country takes pride in its own achievements and success. What makes

you feel proud of your country?

Our country is great, and IТm very proud of it. Russia is famous for its

outstanding people Ц scientists, writers, poets, travellers and explorers.

Russia is a stable and democratic society. Its citizens have many freedoms,

among them the freedom of speech, religion and the press. Russia is a

member of the United Nations. Russia is one of the largest trading

countries. It has a lot of energy resources and exports oil and natural

gas. Russia has for centuries encouraged research and innovation and it has

a lot of achievements throughout the twentieth century. Nobel prizes for

science, literature and peace have been won by Russian citizens. In the

fields of art, media and sports, Russia enjoys an international reputation.

Russia has nuclear weapons, a strong army and remains a widely-respected

country.

For ages mankind was dreaming of travelling in the space. The science

itself came later. K. E. Tsiolkovsky, the great Russian scientist, is the

father of the theory of interplanetary travels. His words that Уmankind

will not remain on the Earth foreverФ came true. On 4 October 1957 the

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